Using Internet Sources In Bibliography Do Numbers

 

 

When citing sources from the Internet, try adding as much of the following in the same sequence:

  1. Contributor information
  2. Title of work (quotes)
  3. Title of overall website (italicized)
  4. Version / Edition
  5. Publisher or sponsor of website
  6. Date of electronic publication
  7. Medium of publication (web)
  8. Date accessed


Sources published directly online

Sources published directly online have no in print originals, and therefore, it is important to include online publication information (i.e. the website publisher/sponsor and date of electronic publication). If unavailable, for online only sources, MLA7 suggests writing “N.p, n.d.” which means no publisher and no date, respectively. We believe adding such place holders is unnecessary, as it provides no information, and the lack of information can be assumed by its absence in the citation.


Citing an article from an online only resource

Example:

Friedland, Lois. “Top 10 Natural and Wildlife Adventure Travel Tips.” About.com. New York Times Company, 22 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.


Citing an entire website with no identifiable electronic publication date

Example:

EasyBib.com. Chegg, n.d. Web. 8. 2016.


Note: that newspaper and magazines websites are considered non-periodical, directly published online sources even if they have in-print copies. Follow the published directly online format.

Citing an article from an online only news source

Example:

Chen, Stephanie. “Growing up is Hard with Mom in Prison” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 7 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.


Note: Many times, the publisher’s name is the same as the online newspaper name.

Citing an article from an online newspaper

Example:

Shorto, Russell. “Going Dutch.” New York Times. New York Times, 3 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.


Note: Some online only sources have publication information unique to its source type, such as online only journals (volume & issue information). Follow the journal format and add information on the date accessed.

Citing an online only journal

Example:

Glotzer, Richard and Anne Federlein. “Miles that Bind: Commuter Marriage and Family Strength.” Michigan Family Review 12 (2007): 7-31. Web. 8 Apr. 2009.


Sources published indirectly online

As opposed to some sources published by a website (direct), other sources may be originally in print, or in another medium, and found online. Cite these sources as you would in their original form, and then add as much relevant web information as possible (website title, publisher / sponsor, date of electronic publication, medium, and date accessed). However, because the source was not published by the website, you do not have to use the “N.p, n.d.” placeholders if no website publisher or date of electronic publication is available.


Citing a book originally in print found online

Example:

Catton, Bruce. The Civil War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2005. Google Book Search. Web. 15 May 2008.


Citing a newsletter found online with no page information

Example:

Puzzanchera, Charles. “Juvenile Arrests 2007.” Juvenile Justice Bulletin (Apr. 2009): n. pag. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Web. 8 May 2009.


Citing a video found online

Example:

West, Kanye. Amazing. Prod. Hype Williams. Roc-A-Fella Records, 2009. YouTube. Web. 8 Feb. 2009.


Citing a painting viewed online

Example:

Picasso. Pablo. Three Musicians. 1921.ArtQuotes.net. Web. 5 Apr. 2006.


Citing a musical recording listened to online, with no discernible manufacturer or date

Example:

Park, Obadiah. “Hey Ya.” N.d. TheSixtyOne.com. Web. 10 Feb. 2007.


Citing a digital image

Example:

Hopper, Angie. Hedgehog. Digital Image.Flickr. Yahoo! Inc., 22 July 2007. Web. 26 Feb. 2013.

Note: In the above example the title is not in quotes because it is a description of the digital image. The URL was truncated to the search URL because it was too long and complicated.


Citing an originally in print journal article found in a database

Example:

Ahn, Hyunchul, and Kyoung-jae Kim. “Using Genetic Algorithms to Optimize Nearest Neighbors for Data Mining.” Annals of Operations Research 263.1 (2008): 5-18. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.

Note: Sources found in online databases typically have been published elsewhere. Include as much as the original publication information as possible, and then add the database name, medium (web), and the date accessed.


Overview

A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project. But, you develop a bibliography only after first preparing a background research plan — a road map of the research questions you need to answer. Before you compose your bibliography, you will need to develop your background research plan.

With your background research plan in hand, you will find sources of information that will help you with your science fair project. As you find this information it will be important for you to write down where the sources are from. You can use the Bibliography Worksheet to help you, just print out a few copies and take them with you to the library. As you find a source, write in all of the necessary information. This way, when you are typing your bibliography you won't need to go back to the library and find any missing information. The more information you write down about your source, the easier it will be for you to find if you want to read it again.

When you are writing your report, you will use the sources in your bibliography to remind you of different facts and background information you used for your science fair project. Each time you use some information from a source, you will need to cite the source that it came from. To cite a source, simply put the author's name and the date of the publication in parentheses (Author, date) in your text. If the person reading your report wants to find the information and read more about it, they can look up the reference in your bibliography for more detail about the source. That is why each source you use must be listed in a detailed bibliography with enough information for someone to go and find it by themselves.

Your bibliography should include a minimum of three written sources of information about your topic from books, encyclopedias, and periodicals. You may have additional information from the Web if appropriate.

Examples of Bibliography Formats

There are standards for documenting sources of information in research papers. Even though different journals may use a slightly different format for the bibliography, they all contain the same basic information. The most basic information that each reference should have is the author's name, the title, the date, and the source.

Different types of sources have different formatting in the bibliography. In American schools, the two most commonly used guidelines for this formatting are published by the MLA (Modern Language Association) and the APA (American Psychological Association).

The MLA guidelines call for the bibliography to be called Works Cited. Science Buddies has summarized some of the most common MLA formats for your use: MLA Format Examples.

The APA guidelines call for the bibliography to be called the Reference List. Science Buddies has summarized some of the most common APA formats for your use: APA Format Examples.

Your teacher will probably tell you which set of guidelines to use.

On the Science Buddies website we use the following guidelines:

  • APA format for online sources
  • MLA format for all other sources
  • APA (author, date, page) format for citations in our articles

Getting Started

Download and print the Science Buddies Bibliography Worksheet. Keep several copies with you and fill in the information as you do your research. When you are finished, type the information from the worksheet into a formatted bibliography using the examples listed above.

Sample Bibliographies

Sample Bibliography: MLA Works Cited Format
Sample Bibliography: APA Reference List Format

Bibliography Checklist

What Makes a Good Bibliography?For a Good Bibliography, You Should Answer "Yes" to Every Question
Have you included at least 3 sources of written information on your subject? (If you include Web pages, they should be in addition to the written sources.)Yes / No
Have you included complete information to identify each of your sources (author's name, the title, the date, and where it was published)?Yes / No
Have you used the proper format for each of your sources? Most teachers prefer the MLA or APA formats. Yes / No
Is your Bibliography in alphabetical order, by author's last name?Yes / No
Do you have sources of information to answer all of your research questions?Yes / No

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