Rizals Essays

Philippine Studies

Description:Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints is an internationally refereed journal that publishes scholarly articles and other materials on the history of the Philippines and its peoples, both in the homeland and overseas. It believes the past is illuminated by historians as well as scholars from other disciplines; at the same time, it prefers ethnographic approaches to the history of the present. It welcomes works that are theoretically informed but not encumbered by jargon. It promotes a comparative and transnational sensibility, and seeks to engage scholars who may not be specialists on the Philippines. Founded in 1953 as Philippine Studies, the journal is published quarterly by the Ateneo de Manila University through its School of Social Sciences.

Coverage: 1953-2011 (Vol. 1, No. 1 - Vol. 59, No. 4)

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ISSN: 00317837

EISSN: 20122489

Subjects: Asian Studies, Area Studies

Collections: Arts & Sciences XII Collection, Asia Collection


The Town Schools in the Philippines byRizal, JoseSummary:

This essay by

José Rizal

details the poor condition and general uselessness of the Spanish educational systemwhen applied in rural Philippine towns. Aside from highlighting the common problems of the system, Rizal alsosuggests reforms in order to make education both more meaningful and more appealing for the indios.


: This document is part of 

Miscellanous Writings of Dr. Jose Rizal 

which was published by the

NationalHistorical Commission of the Philippines

in 1992.In this essay which is original in Spanish is titled La instrucción, the national hero Rizal evaluates theelementary instruction given in the town schools established under the provisions of the Educational Decreesof 1863 and offers proposals for its improvement. He signs it with one of his pseudonyms

Laong Laan


The Religiosity of the Filipino People byRizal, JoseSummary:

A fragmented essay written by

José Rizal

which deals with the nature, degree and circumstances of theFilipino's Catholicism.Idea of Divinity, The Virgin and the Saints, Immortality of the Soul, Idea of Future Life, Virtue and Sin, PRAYERS,Promises and Offerings, Pilgrimages


: This document is part of 

Miscellanous Writings of Dr. Jose Rizal 

which was published by the

NationalHistorical Commission of the Philippines

in 1992.

The Indolence of the Filipino byRizal, Jose

SUMMARY: Rizal admits that indolence does exist among the Filipinos, but it cannot be attributed to thetroubles and backwardness of the country; rather it is the effect of the backwardness and troublesexperienced by the country. Past writings on indolence revolve only on either denying or affirming, and neverstudying its causes in depth. One must study the causes of indolence, Rizal says, before curing it. He thereforeenumerates the causes of indolence and elaborates on the circumstances that have led to it. The hot climate,he points out, is a reasonable predisposition for indolence. Filipinos cannot be compared to Europeans, wholive in cold countries and who must exert much more effort at work. An hour's work under the Philippine sun,he says, is equivalent to a day's work in temperate regions.La Indolencia de los Filipinos, more popularly known in its English version, "The Indolence of the Filipinos," is aexploratory essay written by Philippine national hero Dr. Jose Rizal, to explain the alleged idleness of hispeople during the Spanish colonization.SUMMARY

The Indolence of the Filipinos

is a study of the causes why the people did not, as was said, work hardduring the Spanish regime. Rizal pointed out that long before the coming of the Spaniards, the Filipinos wereindustrious and hardworking. The Spanish reign brought about a decline in economic activities because of certain causes:First, the establishment of the Galleon Trade cut off all previous associations of thePhilippineswithother countries in Asia and the Middle East. As a result,businesswas only conducted with Spain through

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