Gay Movement 1970s Dissertation

Recently completed and in progress masters theses and dissertations in the field of LGBT history:
If you would like to include your dissertation, please fill out the form available here.

Dissertations

In Progress

Tom Butcher
Sexual Spectra: Biology and Sexual Politics, 1898-1933
University of Virginia, History
Supervisor: Allan Megill
Readers: Alon Confino, Corinne Field, Rita Felski

René Esparza
From Vice to Nice: Race, Sex, and the Gentrification of AIDS
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, American Studies
Supervisors: Roderick A. Ferguson, Kevin P. Murphy
Readers: Lorena Muñoz, Edén P. Torres, Martin F. Manalsan, IV

Rachel Gelfand
Nobody’s Baby: Queer Intergenerational Relations Across Oral History, Archives, and Visual Culture
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Supervisor: Sharon P. Holland
Readers: Ann Cvetkovich, Della Pollock, Tim Marr, Michelle Robinson

Elisabeth Frances George
Queer Life in the Queen City and Beyond: Resistance, Space, and Community Mobilization in the Southwest Missouri Ozarks, 1939-2003
State University of New York at Buffalo, History
Supervisor: Susan Cahn
Readers: Victoria Wolcott, Michael Frisch

Shane Landrum
Documenting Citizens: Birth Certificates and American Identities, 1890-present
Brandeis University, History
Supervisor: Michael Willrich
Readers: Jacqueline Jones, Margot Canaday

David Thomas Kurtti
The Queer Performativity of Habitus: Gender Articulation and Performance in the Transgender Community of Fargo-Moorhead
North Dakota State University, Sociology
Supervisor: Christina Weber

Scott De Orio
The Invention of Bad Gay Sex
University of Michigan, History and Women’s Studies
Supervisor: Matt Lassiter
Readers: David Halperin, Gayle Rubin, William Novak

Caroline Radesky
Feeling Historical: Same-Sex Desire and the Politics of History, 1880-1920
University of Iowa, History
Supervisors: Leslie Schwalm, Doug Baynton, Lisa Heineman
Readers: Jeff Bennett, Isaac West, Landon Storrs

Chelsea Del Rio
That Women Could Matter: Building Lesbian Feminism in California, 1955-1982
University of Michigan, History
Supervisor: Regina Morantz-Sanchez
Readers: Matt Lassiter, Rachel Neis, Gayle Rubin, Rebecca Kluchin

Alfonso Adolfo Rodolfo
The Burden of Chastity: The Case of the Courage Apostolate and Project Zacchaeus, 2009-2015
University of the Americas Puebla, School of Arts and Humanities
Supervisor: Marianne Helene Marchand
Readers: José Antonio, Alonso Herrero, and Alison Elizabeth Lee

Carly Simpson
Act Out: A History of Lesbian and Gay Activism at Three Ontario Universities
York University, History
Supervisor: Marc Stein
Readers: Kathryn McPherson, Marcel Martel

Rachel E. Wallace
‘Towards a Better World:’ Transnational Gay Identity and Community
Queen’s University Belfast, History
Supervisors: Anthony Stanonis and Mary O’Dowd

2017

Johnny Bailey
“As Proud of Our Gayness, As We Are of Our Blackness:” The Political and Social Development of the African-American LGBTQ community in Baltimore and Washington, D.C.
Morgan State University, History
Supervisor: Brett Berliner
Readers: Christiana Hanhardt, David Terry

2016

W. Jake Newsome
Homosexuals after the Holocaust: Sexual Citizenship and the Politics of Memory in Germany and the United States, 1945-2008
State University of New York at Buffalo, History
Supervisor: Andreas Daum
Readers: Susan Cahn, Geoffrey Giles, and Sasha Pack

2015

Brian J. Distelberg
Visibility Matters: The Pursuit of American Belonging in an Age of Moving Images
Yale University, History
Supervisor: George Chauncey
Readers: Joanne Meyerowitz, Matthew Frye Jacobson

Wannes Dupont
Free-Floating Evils: A Genealogy of Homosexuality in Belgium
University of Antwerp, History
Supervisors: Henk de Smaele, Kaat Wils
Readers: Robert A. Nye, Jan E. Goldstein, Herman Van Goethe

Craig Griffiths
Gay Politics in 1970s West Germany
Queen Mary University of London, History
Supervisor: Christina von Hodenberg
Readers: Chris Waters, Bernhard Rieger

Scott de Groot
Out of the Closet and Into Print: Gay Liberation across the Anglo-American World
Queen’s University, History
Supervisors: Karen Dubinsky and Ian McKay
Readers: Mariana Valverde, David S. Churchill, Marc Epprecht

Abram J. Lewis
The Falling Dream: Unreason and Enchantment in the Gay Liberation Movement
University of Minnesota, American Studies
Supervisors: Roderick A. Ferguson, Regina Kunzel
Readers: Mark D. Jordan, Jean Langford, Kevin P. Murphy

Katherine Schweighofer
Legacies of Lesbian Land: Rural Feminist Spaces and the Politics of Identity and Community
Indiana University, Gender Studies
Supervisors: Colin R. Johnson, Susan Stryker
Readers: Mary L. Gray, Scott Herring, Stephanie Sanders

Mark Joseph Walmsley
“The First Draft of History”: How the Process of News Construction Has Influenced Our Understanding of the Civil and Gay Rights Movements of the 1960s
University of Leeds, History
Supervisor: Simon Hall
Readers: Kate Dossett, Jonathan Bell

Janet Weston
Curing Sexual Deviance: Medical Approaches to Sexual Offenders in England, 1919-1959
Birkbeck, University of London, History
Supervisor: Joanna Bourke

2014

Teresa Ann Algoso
University of California–Santa Barbara, History
Sex, Science and Hermaphroditism in Early Twentieth-Century Japan
Supervisor: Sabine Fruhstuck
Readers: Luke Roberts, Paul Spickard, Leila Rupp

Thomas John Balcerski
Cornell University, History
Intimate Contests: Manhood, Friendship, and the Coming of the Civil War
Supervisor: Edward E. Baptist

Daniel F. Brandl-Beck
“Berlin from Behind”: a History of “Gay” Travel to Inter-War Berlin
University of Queensland, History
Supervisors: Clive Moore, Andrew Bonnell
Readers: Robert Aldrich, Chris Brickell

Jonathan Coleman
Rent: Same-Sex Prostitution in Modern Britain, 1885-1957
University of Kentucky, History
Supervisor: Philip Harling
Readers: James Albisetti, Karen Petrone, Ellen Rosenman, Lucinda Ramberg

Alix Genter
Risking Everything for That Touch: Butch-Femme Lesbian Culture in New York City from World War II to Women’s Liberation
Rutgers University, History
Supervisor: Nancy Hewitt
Readers: Donna Murch, Whitney Strub, Leisa Meyer

John Paul Frederick Halferty
Political Stages: Gay Theatre in Toronto, 1967–1985
University of Toronto, Drama
Supervisor: Andrea Most

Jennifer D. Jones
The “Fruits of Mixing”: Homosexuality and the Politics of Racial Empowerment, 1945-1975
Princeton University, History
Supervisor: Tera W. Hunter
Readers: Margot Canaday, Joshua B. Guild, Jane Dailey

Katherine Perdue
Writing Desire: The Love Letters of Frieda Fraser and Edith Williams
York University, History
Supervisor: Kathryn McPherson
Readers: Marlene Shore, Marc Stein

Johanna Rothe
University of California, Santa Cruz, History of Consciousness
Psychoanalysis, Sexuality, and Nationality in Late Habsburg Austria
Supervisor: Carla Freccero
Readers: Arondekar, Anjali R., Godzich, Wlad

Dan Royles
Don’t We Die Too?: the Political Culture of African American AIDS Activism
Temple University, History
Supervisor: Beth Bailey
Readers: David Farber, Bryant Simon, Heather Thompson, Alondra Nelson

Thomas X. Sarmiento
The Heartland of Empire: Queer Cultural Imaginaries of Filipinas/os in the Midwest
University of Minnesota, American Studies
Supervisors: Kale Bantigue Fajardo, Kevin P. Murphy
Reader: Jigna Desai

Cookie Woolner
“The Famous Lady Lovers:” African American Women and Same-Sex Desire from Reconstruction to World War Two
University of Michigan, History and Women’s Studies
Supervisors: James W. Cook and Regina Morantz-Sanchez
Readers: Gayle Rubin, Sherie Randolph

2013

Cyd Cipolla
“After These Horrendous Crimes, that Creature Forfeits his Rights”: The Sexually Violent Offender as Exceptional Criminal
Emory University, Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
Supervisor: Rosemarie Garland-Thomson
Readers: Sander L. Gilman, Kay L. Levine, Joy A. McDougall

John Goins
Confronting Itself: The AIDS Crisis and the LGBT Community in Houston
University of Houston, History
Supervisor: Nancy Beck Young
Readers: Eric Walther, Maria Gonzalez, Linda Reed

Bridget Gurtler
Synthetic Conception: Artificial Insemination and the Transformation of Reproduction and Family in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century America
Rutgers University, History
Supervisor: Keith Wailoo
Readers: Julie Livingston, Margaret Marsh, Rayna Rapp, and Paul Israel

Stephen Vider
No Place Like Home: A Cultural History of Gay Domesticity, 1948-1982
Harvard University, History of American Civilization
Supervisor: Nancy F. Cott
Readers: Robin Bernstein, Glenda Carpio, Margot Canaday

Jerry Watkins
Hot Times on the Gay Gulf Coast: Queer Networks and Cruising Through North Florida’s Spaces, 1945-1965
King’s College London, American Studies
Supervisor: John Howard
Readers: Matt Cook, Jonathan Bell

Ellen Zitani
Love’s Ethics: Sibilla Aleramo and Queer Feminism in Fin de Siecle Italy
CUNY Graduate Center, History
Supervisors: Mary Gibson, Randolph Trumbach
Readers: Dagmar Herzog, Marta Petrusewicz

2012

Hongwei Bao
“Queer Comrades”: Gay Identity and Politics in Post-Socialist China
The University of Sydney, Gender and Cultural Studies
Supervisors: Catherine Driscoll, Mayfair May-Hui Yang
Readers: Lisa Rofel, Fran Martin, and Meaghan Morris

Ryan Lee Cartwright
Peculiar Places: A Queer History of Rural Nonconformity
University of Minnesota, American Studies
Supervisors: Roderick A. Ferguson, Regina Kunzel, and Kevin P. Murphy
Readers: Jennifer Gunn, Omise’eke N. Tinsley

Howard Chiang
Why Sex Mattered: Science and Visions of Transformation in Modern China
Princeton University, History of Science
Supervisors: Benjamin Elman, Angela Creager
Readers: Margot Canaday, Larissa Heinrich

Christianne A. Gadd
The Advocate and the Making of a Gay Model Minority in the United States, 1967-2007
Lehigh University, History
Supervisor: John Pettegrew
Readers: Dawn Keetley, Gail Cooper, Edward P. Morgan

Amy Tooth Murphy
Reading the Lives between the Lines: Lesbian Literature and Oral History in Post-War Britain
University of Glasgow, History and English Literature
Supervisors: Lynn Abrams, David Shuttleton

Rinardo Reddick
Sexual Encounters: Gay Male College Students’ Use of the Internet and Social Media
Iowa State University, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies
Supervisor: Dan Robinson

Serena Tolino
Homosexuality and Homosexual Acts in Islamic Law and in Positive Law: the Egyptian Case with Some Mentions of the Lebanese Case
University of Naples “L’Orientale” (Italy), Near East Studies
Supervisors: Jürgen Paul, Agostino Cilardo
Readers: Almut Höfert, Alex Metcalfe, Matthias Kaufmann, Maria Giovanna Stasolla

2011

Catherine Batza
Before AIDS: The Gay and Lesbian Community Health Movement in the 1970s
University of Illinois at Chicago, History
Supervisor: John D’Emilio
Readers: Jennifer Brier, Susan Levine

Tristan Cabello
Queer Bronzeville: Race, Homosexuality and Culture in Black Chicago 1935-1985
Northwestern University, History
Supervisor: Michael Sherry

Julio Capó, Jr.
From Subculture to Mainstream: The Transformation of Miami’s Queer Urban Space, 1940 – 1980
Florida International University, History
Supervisors: Alex Lichtenstein and Darden A. Pyron
Readers: Alex Stepick, Sherry Johnson and Aurora Morcillo

Betty Luther Hillman
America Dresses for Culture Wars: The Politics of Self-Presentation, 1964-80
Yale University, History
Supervisor: Joanne Meyerowitz
Readers: George Chauncey, Matthew Jacobson, Robert W. Gordon

David Palmer
Imagining a Gay New World: Communities, Identities, and the Ethics of Difference in Late Twentieth-Century America
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, History
Supervisor: John F. Kasson
Readers: William F. Brundage, Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, John Howard, John Wood Sweet

Andrew Israel Ross
Urban Desires: Practicing Pleasure in the “City of Light,” 1848-1900
University of Michigan, History
Supervisor: Joshua Cole
Readers: Kathleen Canning, Scott Spector, David Caron

Emily Skidmore
Exceptional Queerness: Defining the Boundaries of Normative U.S. Citizenship, 1876-1936
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, History
Supervisors: David Roediger and Antoinette Burton
Readers: Fiona I.B. Ngo, Kristin Hoganson Siobhan Somerville

2010

Justin Bengry
The Pink Pound: Commerce and Homosexuality in Britain, 1900-1967
University of California, Santa Barbara, History
Supervisor: Erika Rappaport
Readers: Leila Rupp, Ken Mouré, Stephan Miescher, Lisa Jacobson

Kathleen Casey
Cross-dressers and Race-crossers: Intersections of Gender and Race in American Vaudeville, 1900-1930.
University of Rochester, History
Supervisor: Victoria Wolcott
Readers: Lynn Gordon and Joan Saab

Jason Narlock
Cul-de-Sac Communities: Lesbian and Gay Experience in Orange County, California 1969-1984
King’s College London, American Studies
Supervisor: John Howard
Readers: David Serlin, Mandy Merk

K.J. Rawson
Archiving Transgender: Affects, Logics, and the Power of Queer History
Syracuse University, Composition and Cultural Rhetoric
Supervisor: Margaret Himley
Readers: Eileen Schell, Lois Agnew, Charles E. Morris III, and Kenneth Lavender

Alfonso Adolfo Rodolfo
“Repair my Church”: Discrimination, State Intervention and the Acceptance of North American Gays and Lesbian into the Catholic Church
University of the Americas Puebla, Department of International Relations and Political Science
Supervisor: Emma R. Norman
REaders: Marianne Helena MArchand, José Antonio, Alonso Herrero

Christopher Schroeder
Mapping the Contours of Queer Cultural Politics in a Midwestern City: The Case of Toledo, Ohio
University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Geography
Supervisor: Judith Kenny
Readers: Kristin Sziarto, Jennifer Jordan, Lawrence Knopp, Anna Mansson-McGinty

Brice D. Smith
“Yours in Liberation”: Lou Sullivan and the Construction of FTM Identity
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, History
Supervisor: Merry Wiesner-Hanks
Readers: Susan Stryker, Anne Enke, Joe Austin, Rachel Buff

Stefanie Snider
Envisioning Bodily Difference: Refiguring Fat and Lesbian Subjects in Contemporary Art and Visual Culture, 1968-2009
University of Southern California, Art History
Supervisor: Richard Meyer
Readers: Judith Halberstam and Eunice Howe

Zeb Tortorici
Contra Natura: Sin, Crime, and ‘Unnatural’ Sexuality in Colonial Mexico, 1530-1821
UCLA, Department of History
Supervisor: Kevin Terraciano
Readers: Teofilo Ruiz, Lauren Derby, James Schultz

2009

Pablo Ben
Male Sexuality, the Popular Classes, and the State: Buenos Aires, 1880-1955
University of Chicago, History
Supervisors: Dain Borges and George Chauncey
Reader: José Moya

Richard Clark
City of Desire: A History of Same-sex Desire in New Orleans, 1917-1977
Tulane University, History
Supervisor: Rachel Devlin
Readers: Daniel Hurewitz, Randy Sparks

Gillian Frank
“Save Our Children”: The Sexual Politics of Child Protection in the
United States, 1965-1990
Brown University, American Civilization
Supervisor: Mari Jo Buhle
Readers: Richard Meckel, Susan Smulyan

Emily K. Hobson
Imagining Alliance: Queer Anti-Imperialism and Race in California, 1966-1990
University of Southern California, American Studies & Ethnicity
Supervisor: George Sanchez

Megan MacDonald
Indigenous American Two-Spirit Women and Urban Citizenship in the Late Twentieth Century
Purdue University, American Studies
Supervisor: Susan Curtis
Readers: Laurie Graham, Evelyn Blackwood, Bill Mullen

Margaret Robinson
Turning Points in Identity and Theology: Bisexual Women Choosing Between Monogamous and Polyamorous Relationships
University of St. Michael’s College, Toronto School of Theology, University of Toronto, Theology
Supervisor: Marilyn Legge
Readers: Traci West, Marsha Hewitt, Tom Reynolds

Timothy Stewart-Winter
Raids, Rights, and Rainbow Coalitions: Sexuality and Race in Chicago Politics, 1950-2000
University of Chicago, History
Supervisor: George Chauncey
Readers: Amy Dru Stanley, James T. Sparrow, William H. Sewell, Jr.

Jennifer Tyburczy
Exhibiting Sexualities: Pleasure, Power, and Performance in Museums
Northwestern University, Performance Studies
Supervisor: Jennifer DeVere Brody
Readers: Lauren Berlant, Tracy C. Davis, E. Patrick Johnson

Andrew Wackerfuss
The Stormtrooper Family: How Sexuality, Spirituality, and Community Shaped the Hamburg SA
Georgetown University, History
Supervisor: Roger Chickering
Readers: Geoffrey Giles, Katrin Sieg, Richard Stites

2008

Brooke M. Campbell
“Woman” For Sale: Feminism, Queer Theory, and the Question of Sex Work
Emory University, Women’s Studies
Supervisors: Lynne Huffer and Mark Jordan
Readers: Martha Fineman, Elissa Marder, Karla Oeler

Wesley Chenault
An Unspoken Past: Atlanta Lesbian and Gay History, 1940-1970
University of New Mexico, American Studies
Supervisor: Alex Lubin
Readers: John Howard, Amy L. Brandzel, Rebecca Schreiber

Eduardo Contreras
The Politics of Community Development: Latinos, their Neighbors, and the State in San Francisco, 1960s and 1970s
University of Chicago, History
Supervisor: George Chauncey

Gareth F. Griffin
Flames of Hate: The New Orleans Upstairs Lounge Fire, 24 June 1973
University of Louisiana at Lafayette, History
Chair: Michael Martin
Readers: Mary Farmer-Kaiser, Keith Dorwick

Jen Manion
Women’s Crime and Prison Reform in Early Pennsylvania, 1786-1829
Rutgers University, History
Supervisor: Nancy Hewitt
Readers: Kathleen Brown, Ann Fabian, Jan Lewis, Jennifer Morgan

Laurie Marhoefer
Among Abnormals: The Queer Sexual Politics of Germany’s Weimar Republic, 1918-1933
Rutgers University, History
Supervisor: Belinda Davis

Damon Scott
The City Aroused: Sexual Politics and the Transformation of San Francisco’s Urban Landscape, 1943-1964
University of Texas at Austin, Geography
Supervisor: Steven D. Hoelscher
Readers: Larry Knopp, Paul C. Adams, Elizabeth Mueller, and Leo E. Zonn

Brock Thompson
An Un-Natural State: Same-sex desire in Arkansas, the Depression through the Clinton Era
King’s College, University of London, American Studies
Supervisor: John Howard
Readers: Mark Turner, Jay Barth

Red Vaughan Tremmel
Sin City Upon a Hill: Play, Urban Conflict, and the Rise of Commercial Liberality
University of Chicago, History
Supervisor: George Chauncey
Readers: Amy Dru Stanley, Lauren Berlant

Jerry T. Watkins III
Underneath the Rainbow: Queer Identity and Community Building in Panama City and the Florida Panhandle 1950 – 1990
Georgia State University, History
Supervisor: Clifford Kuhn
Reader: Michelle Brattain
2007

Amber R. Clifford-Napoleone
Queering the Inferno: Space, Identity, and Kansas City’s Jazz Scene
University of Kansas, American Studies
Supervisor: Sherrie Tucker
Readers: Cheryl Lester, Philip Barnard, Iris Fischer, Brian Donovan

Andrea Lowgren
City Limits: Reputation and the Sexual Cartography of Women’s Mobility in Mid-Twentieth Century San Francisco
University of California, Santa Cruz, History
Supervisor: Dana Frank
Readers: Alice Yang-Murray, Marilyn Westerkamp

Marti Lybeck
Gender, Sexuality, and Belonging: Female Homosexuality in Germany, 1890-1933
University of Michigan, History
Supervisors: Geoff Eley and Kathleen Canning
Readers: Scott Spector, Nancy Hunt, Kerstin Barndt

Daniel Rivers
Radical Relations: A History of Lesbian and Gay Parents and Their Children in the United States, 1945-2003
Stanford University, History
Supervisor: Estelle Freedman
Readers: Albert Camarillo, Paul Robinson

Phil Tiemeyer
Manhood Up in the Air: Gender, Sexuality, Corporate Culture, and the Law in 20th Century America
University of Texas at Austin, American Studies
Supervisor: Janet Davis
Readers: Neville Hoad, Jeff Meikle, Julia Mickenberg, Mark A. Lawrence

Heather Rachelle White
Homosexuality, Gay Communities, and American Churches: A History of a Changing Religious Ethic, 1946-1977
Princeton University, Religion
Supervisor: R. Marie Griffith
Readers: Jeffrey Stout, Albert Raboteau, Leigh Schmidt

Howell Williams
Homosexuality and the American Catholic Church: Reconfiguring the Silence, 1971-1999
Florida State University, Religion
Supervisor: John Corrian
Readers: Amanda Porterfield, Amy Koehlinger, Robin Goodman

2006

Aaron L. Bachhofer, II
The Emergence and Evolution of the Gay and Bisexual Male Subculture in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1889-2005
Oklahoma State University, History
Supervisor: Laura Belmonte
Readers: Michael Logan, Elizabeth Williams, Brad Bays

Leslie Jansen
When Clothes Do Not Make the Man: Female Masculinity and Nationalism in Eighteenth Century British Literature
University of Maryland, English
Supervisor: Susan Lanser
Readers: William Cohen, Vincent Carretta, Katherine King, Laura Rosenthal

James E. Kollenbroich
Our Hour Has Come: The Homosexual Emancipation Movement in the Weimar Republic
University of Illinois at Chicago, History
Supervisor: Richard Levy

Amanda H. Littauer
Unsanctioned Encounters: Women, Girls, and Non-Marital Sexuality in the United States, 1941–1963
University of California, Berkeley
Supervisors: Paula Fass, Mary Ryan

Craig Loftin
Passionate Anxieties: McCarthyism and Homosexual Identities in the United States, 1945-1965
University of Southern California, History
Supervisors: Steven J. Ross, Lois Banner
Readers: Phil Ethington, Michael Messner

Don Romesburg
Arrested Development: Homosexuality, Gender, and American Adolescence, 1890-1930
University of California, Berkeley, History
Supervisor: Paula Fass
Readers: Tom Laqueur, Chris Nealon

Melissa Sky
Twilight Tales: Ann Bannon’s Lesbian Pulp Series “The Beebo Brinker Chronicles”
McMaster University, English
Supervisor: Lorraine York

2005

Nicholas L. Syrett
The Company He Keeps: White College Fraternities, Masculinity, and Power, 1825-1975
University of Michigan, Program in American Culture
Supervisor: Carroll Smith-Rosenberg
Readers: Mary Kelley, Hannah Rosen, Philip Deloria, Matthew Countryman

C. Todd White
“Out of Many…”: A Social History of the Movement for Homosexual Rights
University of Southern California, Anthropology
Supervisor: G. Alexander Moore
Readers: Andre Simic, Jeanne Jackson, Janet Hoskins, Vern L. Bullough, Stephen O. Murray

2004

Margot Canaday
The Straight State: Sexuality and American Citizenship Before Stonewall
University of Minnesota, History
Supervisor: Sara Evans
Readers: Elaine May, Barbara Welke, Sally Kenney, Erika Lee

Kenneth W. Cimino
Gay Assimilation: The Group Consciousness of Gay Conservatives
Claremont Graduate University
Supervisor: Gary Segura
Readers: Harry Pachon, Annette Steinacker

Marcia Gallo
Different Daughters: The Daughters of Bilitis and the Roots of Lesbian and Women’s
Liberation, 1955-1970
City University of New York Graduate Center, History
Supervisor: Martin Duberman
Readers: Bonnie Anderson, Blanche Wiesen Cook, Joshua B. Freeman, Alisa Solomon

Paul Herman
How the Homosexual Became Dangerous: The Cultural Understanding of Male
Homosexuality in the United States, 1890-1977
Stanford University, History
Supervisor: Estelle Freedman
Readers: Paul Robinson, Richard White

Terence Kissack
Anarchism and The Politics of Homosexuality
City University of New York Graduate Center, History
Supervisor: Martin Duberman
Readers: David Nasaw, Blanche Wiesen Cook, Thomas Kessner, Lisa Duggan

J. Todd Ormsby
Experience and Sexuality: Gay Male Publicity, Community and Meaning in 1960s
San Francisco
University of Kansas, American Studies
Supervisor: Robert Antonio
Readers: Angel Kwolek-Folland, Joane Nagel, William Tuttle

2003

David D. Doyle, Jr.
The Dandy and the Aesthete: Middle and Upper Class Gay Male Subcultures in
19th Century America
City University of New York Graduate Center, History
Supervisor: David Nasaw
Readers: Martin Duberman, Randolph Trumbach

Natalia Gerodetti
Modernising Sexualities: Towards a Socio-Historical Understanding of the Construction of Sexuality in Switzerland
University of Leeds, Sociology & Social Policy
Supervisors: Sasha Roseneil, Fiona Williams
Readers: Davina Cooper, Carol Smart

Colin Johnson
Columbia’s Orient: Intimacy, Geography and the Invention of Heterosexuality in Rural America
University of Michigan, American Culture
Co-Chairs: Carroll Smith-Rosenberg and Patsy Yaeger
Readers: Pete Daniel, David M. Halperin, Maria Montoya

Ian Lekus
Queer and Present Dangers: Homosexuality and American Antiwar Activism during the Vietnam Era
Duke University, History
Chair: William Chafe
Readers: John D’Emilio, Felicia Kornbluh, John Herd Thompson, Susan Thorne

David James Prickett
Body Crisis, Identity Crisis: Homosexuality and Aesthetics in Wilhelmine- and Weimar Germany
University of Cincinnati, Germanic Languages and Literatures
Chair: Katharina Gerstenberger
Readers: Todd Herzog, Klaus Mladek, Martin Wechselblatt

Greta Rensenbrink
Reshaping Body Politics: Lesbian Feminism and the Cultural Politics of the Body, 1968-1983
University of Chicago, History
Supervisor: George Chauncey
Readers: Leora Auslander, Elizabeth Povinelli, Amy Dru Stanley

Charles Upchurch
‘ …and every Solicitation, Persuasion, Promise, or Threat’: The Regulation of Male Same-sex Desire in London, 1820 to 1870
Rutgers University, History
Chair: John R. Gillis
Readers: Bonnie G. Smith, Jennifer Jones, Ed Cohen

2002

Cristian Berco
Uncovering the Unmentionable Vice: Male Homosexuality, Race, and Class in Golden
Age Spain
University of Arizona, History
Supervisor: Helen Nader
Readers: Donna Guy, Susan Karant-Nunn

Jennifer Brier
Infectious Ideas: AIDS and the Politics of Conservatism in the 1980s
Rutgers University, History
Supervisor: Alice Kessler-Harris
Readers: Mia Bay, Evelynn Hammonds, James Reed, Bonnie Smith

Eliza Starr Byard
Inverts, Perverts, and National Peril: Federal Responses to Homosexuality, 1890-1956
Columbia University, History
Supervisor: Elizabeth Blackmar
Readers: Eric Foner, Katharine Franke, Alice Kessler-Harris, Rosalind Rosenberg.

Paul Jackson
Courting Homosexuals in the Military: The Management of Homosexuality in the
Canadian Military during the Second World War
Queen’s University, History
Supervisor: Karen Dubinsky
Readers: Jeff Keshen, Marc Epprecht

Tirza Latimer
Looking Like a Lesbian: Portraiture and Sexual Politics in Paris Between the
Wars
Stanford University, Art and Art History
Supervisor: Wanda Corn
Readers: Pamela Lee, Richard Meyer, Mary Louise Roberts

Heather Lee Miller
The Teeming Brothel: Sex Acts, Desires, and Sexual Identities in the United
States, 1870-1940
Ohio State University, History
Supervisor:Leila J. Rupp
Readers: Susan Hartmann, Birgitte Soland

Christa Orth
Brothers and Sisters (and Everyone in Between): Sexuality and Class in the Pacific Northwest, 1970-1995
University of Oregon, History
Supervisor: Matthew Garcia
Readers: Peggy Pascoe, Martin Summers

2001

Elise Chenier
Stranger in Our Midst: Male Sexual Deviance’ in Postwar Ontario
Queen’s University, History
Supervisor: Karen Dubinsky
Readers: Mary Louise Adams, Ian McKay, Marc Stein

Karen Duder
The Spreading Depths: Lesbians and Bisexual Women in English Canada, 1910-1965
University of Victoria, History
Supervisor: Lynne Marks
Readers: Holly Devor, Angus McLaren, Elizabeth Vibert

Jennifer V. Evans
Reconstruction Sites: Sexuality, Citizenship, and the Limits of National Belonging in Divided Berlin, 1944-58
SUNY-Binghamton, History
Supervisor: Jean H. Quataert
Readers: Wulf Kansteiner, Ingeborg Majer O’Sickey, Dara Silberstein

Scott Gunther
The Elastic Closet: Legal Censure and Auto-Censure of Homosexuality in France
New York University, French Studies
Supervisor: Herrick Chapman
Readers: Bryant Tip Ragan, Shanny Peer, David Richards, Susan Carol Rogers, Eric Fassin

Daniel Hurewitz
Made in Edendale: Bohemian Los Angeles and the Politics of Sexual Identity,
1918-1953
University of California, Los Angeles, History
Supervisors: Ellen DuBois, Janice Reiff
Readers: Joseph Bristow, David Sabean

Kevin P. Murphy
The Manly World of Urban Reform: Political Manhood and the New Politics of Progressivism in New York City, 1877-1916
New York University, History
Supervisor: Thomas Bender
Readers: Daniel Czitrom, Lisa Duggan, Martha Hodes, Mary Nolan

William Poulin-Deltour
Le Gai Paris Gay? Making Sense of American Influence on Contemporary French Gay
Activism
New York University, French Studies
Supervisor: Susan Carol Rogers
Readers: Herrick Chapman, Denis Hollier, Shanny Peer, Tip Ragan

Horacio N. Roque Ramírez
Communities of Desire: Queer Latina/Latino History and Memory, San Francisco Bay
Area, 1960s-1990s
University of California, Berkeley, Comparative Ethnic Studies
Supervisor: Evelyn Nakano Glenn
Readers: Waldo E. Martin, Jr., Michael Omi, Julia E. Curry Rodriguez

Kevin Reilly
The Interpretation of Paul and the Social Construction of Sexuality
Princeton Theological Seminary, Biblical Studies-New Testament
Supervisor: Brian Blount
Readers: Donald Juel and Jaqueline Lapsley

Jens Rydström
Sinners and Citizens: Bestiality and Homosexuality in Sweden 1880-1950
Stockholm University, History
Supervisor: Anders Berge
Readers: George Chauncey, Yvonne Hirdman, Madeleine Leijonhufvud, Jonas Liliequist

Clayton J. Whisnant
Hamburg’s Gay Scene in the Era of Family Politics, 1945-1969
University of Texas at Austin, History.
Supervisor: David C. Crew
Readers: Peter Jelavich, Judith Coffin, Standish Meacham, and Kit Belgum

2000

Brett Abrams
Hooray for Hollywood: Gender and Sexual Non-Conformity During the Classical 
Hollywood Era
American University, History
Supervisor: Vanessa Schwartz
Readers: Douglas Gomery, Rodger Streitmatter

David Churchill
When Home Became Away: American Expatriates and New Social Movements in
 Toronto, 1965–1977
University of Chicago, History
Supervisor: George Chauncey
Readers: Kathleen Conzen, Thomas Holt

Deborah Gould
Sex, Death, and the Politics of Anger: Emotions and Reason in ACT UP’s Fight Against AIDS
University of Chicago, Political Science
Supervisor: William Sewell, Jr.
Readers: Leora Auslander, George Chauncey, Michael Dawson

Chad Heap
Slumming: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940
University of Chicago, History
Supervisor: George Chauncey
Readers: Leora Auslander, Thomas Holt

David K. Johnson
The Lavender Scare: Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Civil Service, 1945–1975
Northwestern University, History
Supervisor: Michael Sherry
Readers: Henry Binford, Nancy MacLean

Karen C. Krahulik
Cape Queer: The Politics of Sex, Race, and Class in Provincetown,
 Massachusetts, 1859–1999
New York University, History
Supervisor: Lizabeth Cohen
Readers: Lisa Duggan, Martha Hodes, Daniel Walkowitz, Susan Ware

Martin Meeker
Come Out West: Communication and the Gay and Lesbian Migration to San Francisco, 1940s–1960s
University of Southern California, History
Supervisor: Philip Ethington
Readers: Steve Ross, Vanessa Schwartz, Richard Meyer

Meredith Wood
ReSisters in Crime: Politics and Sexuality in Lesbian Detective Fiction
University of Minnesota, American Studies
Supervisor: David Roediger
Readers: Maria Damon, Toni McNaron

1999

Randolph W. Baxter
Eradicating This Menace: Homophobia and Anti-Communism in Congress, 1947–1954
University of California at Irvine, History
Supervisor: Keith L. Nelson
Readers: Spencer C. Olin, Jonathan M. Wiener

Stacy L. Braukman
Anticommunism and the Politics of Race and Sex in Florida,
1954–1965
University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill, History
Supervisor: Jacquelyn D. Hall
Readers: John D’Emilio, Peter Filene, Alison Isenberg

Melissa J. Doak
“She Will Never Get Well While Doing Anything ‘Unnatural’”: Women’s Sexual
 Deviance and Institutional Psychiatry in New York City, 1890-1920
State University of New York at Binghamton, History
Supervisor: Thomas Dublin

Mary Elliott
The Closet of the Heart: Legacies of Domesticity in Tomboy Narratives and Lesbian Pulp Fiction, 1850-1965
University of Wisconsin, English
Supervisor: Gregory Jay
Readers: Lynne Joyrich, Jeff Merrick, Kristie Hamilton, Jane Gallop

David Michael Lugowski
Queering the (New) Deal: Lesbian, Gay and Queer Representation in United States
 Cinema of the Great Depression, 1929-1941
New York University, Cinema Studies
Supervisor: Chris Straayer
Readers: Alex Doty, Henry Jenkins, Alex Doty, Robert Sklartate

Yolanda Retter
On the Side of Angels: Lesbian Activism in Los Angeles, 1970-1990
University of New Mexico, American Studies
Supervisor: Mary Jane Young
Readers: Jane Caputi, Emma Perez, Diana Rebolledo

David Serlin
Built for Living: Imagining the American Body Through Medical Science, 1945–65
New York University, American Studies
Supervisor: Andrew Ross
Readers: Lizabeth Cohen, Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Dorothy Nelkin, Daniel
Walkowitz

1998

Julian B. Carter
White Love: Sexual Normality and the Future of the Race, 1890-1940
University of California at Irvine, History
Supervisor: Alice Fahs

Elizabeth Clement
Trick or Treat: Prostitution and Working-Class Women’s Sexuality in NYC, 1900–1932
University of Pennsylvania, History
Supervisors: Drew Faust, Carroll Smith-Rosenberg
Readers: Kathy Brown, Lori Ginzberg

Jennifer Gilbert
Diversity, Difference and Power: The National Organization for Women and the 
Politics of Identity, 1966–1976
Duke University
Supervisor: William Chafe
Readers: Ray Gavins, Lawrence Goodwyn, Nancy Hewitt

David Michael Robinson
To Boldly Go Where No Man Has Gone Before: The Representation of Lesbianism 
in Mid-Seventeenth- to Early Eighteenth-Century British and French 
Literature
University of California, Berkeley, English
Supervisor: Catherine Gallagher
Readers: James Grantham Turner, Carla Hesse

1997

Brett Beemyn
A Queer Capital: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Life in Washington, D.C.,
1890–1955
University of Iowa, American Studies
Supervisor: Leslie Schwalm
Readers: Jane Desmond, Mickey Eliason, Kim Marra, Fred Woodard

John Howard
Men Like That: Male Homosexualities in Mississippi, 1945–1985
Emory University, Graduate Institute of the Liberal Arts
Supervisor: Allen Tullos
Readers: Martin Duberman, Catherine Nickerson, Mary Odem

Christopher Nealon
Material Fantasy: Identification as History in United States Lesbian and Gay Literature and Culture
Cornell University, English
Supervisor: Mark Seltzer
Readers: Shirley Samuels and Timothy Murray

William A. Peniston
Pederasts and Others: A Social History of Male Homosexuality in the Early Years of the French Third Republic
University of Rochester, History
Supervisor: Bonnie G. Smith
Readers: Alice Conklin, William McGrath, Thomas DiPiero

1996

Jane Gerhard
Desiring Revolution: Second Wave Feminism and the Rewriting of American Sexual Thought, 1920–1980
Brown University, American Civilization
Supervisor: Mari Jo Buhle
Readers: Lisa Duggan, Richard Meckel, Susan Smulyan

James N. Green
Beyond Carnival: Homosexuality in Twentieth-Century Brazil
University of California at Los Angeles, History
Supervisor: José C. Moya
Readers: Karen Brodkin, Ellen DuBois, Ramon Gutierrez

Gregory M. Pflugfelder
Cartographies of Desire: Male-Male Sexuality in Japanese Discourse,
1600–1950
Stanford University, History
Supervisor: Peter Duus
Readers: Estelle Freedman, James Ketelaar

William B. Turner
Sex and the American Subject: Foucault’s Impact on Feminist and Lesbian/Gay Scholars
Vanderbilt University, History
Supervisor: Paul K. Conkin
Readers: Michael Bess, James Epstein, Valerie Traub

Anne Valk
Separatism and Sisterhood: Race, Sex, and Women’s Activism in
 Washington, D.C.,1963-1980
Duke University, History
Supervisor: Nancy Hewitt
Readers: William Chafe, Ray Gavins, Bob Korstad, Jean O’Barr

1995

Nan Alamilla Boyd
San Francisco Was A Wide Open Town: Charting the Emergence of Gay and 
Lesbian Communities Through the Mid-Twentieth Century
Brown University, American Civilization
Supervisor: Mari Jo Buhle
Readers: Henry Abelove, Anne Fausto-Sterling

Scott Bravmann
Queer Fictions of the Past
University of California, Santa Cruz, History of Consciousness

Andrea Friedman
Prurient Interests: Anti-Obscenity Campaigns in New York City, 1909–1945
University of Wisconsin at Madison, History
Supervisor: Linda Gordon
Readers: Paul Boyer, Juli D’Acci, Carl Kaestle, Steve Stern

Katie Gilmartin
The Very House of Difference: Intersections of Identities in the Life Histories of Colorado Lesbians, 1940–1965
Yale University, American Studies
Readers: Nancy Cott, Elizabeth Kennedy, Hazel Carby

1994

Rudi Bleys
Male-to-Male Sexual Behaviour and the Ethnographic Imagination, 1750–1918
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Catholic University Leuven/Louvain)
Supervisor: Prof. R. De Schryver
Readers: R. Devisch, Rudi Laermans, Leen van Molle, Gert Hekma

Matthew Harvey Sommer
Sex, Law, and Society in Late Imperial China
University of California, Los Angeles, History
Supervisor: Phillip Huang

Marc Stein
The City of Sisterly and Brotherly Loves: The Making of Lesbian and Gay Movements in Greater Philadelphia, 1945–1972
University of Pennsylvania, History
Supervisor: Carroll Smith-Rosenberg
Readers: Mary Frances Berry, Michael B. Katz

Juan Antonio Suarez
Avant-garde Cinema and Mass Culture: The 1960s American Underground
Indiana University
Supervisor: James Naremore
Readers: Matei Calinescu, Patrick Brantlinger, Barbara Klinger

John Donald Wrathall
American Manhood and the Y.M.C.A., 1868–1920
University of Minnesota, History
Supervisor: Rudolph Vecoli

1993

Leisa Meyer
Creating G. I. Jane: The Women’s Army Corps During World War II
University of Wisconsin at Madison, History
Supervisor: Linda Gordon
Readers: Jeanne Boydston, Mary Gilfus, Stanley Schultz

Kevin J. Mumford
From Vice to Vogue: Black/White Sexuality and the 1920s
Stanford University, History
Supervisor: Estelle B. Freedman
Readers: George M. Frederickson, Mary Lou Roberts

Vernon Rosario
Doctors, Patients, and Novelists: Narrating the Erotic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century France
Harvard University, History of Science
Supervisor: Anne Harrington
Readers: Allan Brandt, Robert Nye

1992

Lisa Duggan
The Trials of Alice Mitchell: Sex, Science, and Sensationalism in Turn of 
the Century America
University of Pennsylvania, History
Supervisor: Carroll Smith-Rosenberg
Readers: Michael B. Katz, Walter Licht, Judith Walkowitz

Les Wright
The Chiasmic Bind: Comparative Studies in Contemporary Gay Male
 Subjectivities
University of California at Berkeley, Comparative Literature
Supervisor: Avital Ronell
Readers: Anton Kaes, Kenneth Weisinger

1991

Will Roscoe
The Zuni Man-Woman: An Ethnohistorical Study of a Third Gender Role
University of California at Santa Cruz, History of Consciousness
Supervisor: Gary Lease
Readers: Carolyn Clark, Triloki Pandey

1990

Susan A. Cahn
Coming On Srong: Gender and Sexuality in Women’s Sport.
University of Minnesota, History
Supervisor: Sara Evans
Readers: Mary Jo Maines, Russ Menard, Janet Spector

Sharon Ullman
Broken Silences: Sex and Culture in Turn of the Century America
University of California, Berkeley, History
Supervisor: Mary Ryan
Readers: Leon Litwack, Barbara Christian

Kevin F. White
The Flapper’s Boyfriend: The Revolution in Morals and the Emergence of
 Modern American Male Sexuality, 1910-1930
Ohio State University, History
Supervisor: Leila Rupp
Readers: John Burnham, Warren Van Tine

1989

George Chauncey
Gay New York: Urban Culture and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940
Yale University, History
Supervisor: Nancy Cott
Readers: John Boswell, David Montgomery

1984

Michael Lombardi
The Translation of the Works by Karl Heinrich Ulrichs with Special Emphasis 
on Research on the Riddle of Man-Manly Love
ONE Institute Graduate School

1982

John D’Emilio
Out of the Shadows: The Homosexual Emancipation Movement in the United States
Columbia University, History.
Supervisor: William Leuchtenburg.
Readers: Kenneth Jackson, Rosalind Rosenberg

1980

Ramón A. Gutiérrez
Marriage, Sex, and the Family: Social Change in Colonial New Mexico, 1690-1846
University of Wisconsin, Madison, History
Supervisor: Peter H. Smith
Readers: Thomas Skidmore, Steve J. Stern

1978

Salvatore John Licata
Gay Power: A History of the American Gay Movement, 1908–1974
University of Southern California, History
Supervisor: Frank Mitchell

1972

Rictor Norton
The Homosexual Literary Tradition: An Interpretation
Florida State University, English Literature
Supervisor: Harry Morris



ABSTRACTS: Ph.D & Master's Theses
Full Text Dissertations

Adams-Thies, Brian L (2007). Perimeters, performances and perversity: The creation and success of a gay community in Madrid, Spain. PhD Dissertation, University of Arizona. Abstract. PDF Download.

Andits, Eszter (2010). "Sore on the Nation's Body": Repression of Homosexuals Under Italian Facism. Master's of Arts Dissertation, History Department, Central European University. PDF Download.

Bialystok, Sandra (2008). The Cuckold, His Wife, and Her Lover: A Study of Infidelity in the Cent nouvelles nouvelles, the Decameron, and the Libro de buen amor. PhD Dissertation, Centre for Comparative Literature, University of Toronto. Abstract. PDF Download.

Burns R (2007). On the limits of culture: why biology is important in the study of Victorian sexuality. PhD Dissertation. Georgia State University. PDF Download. Download Page.  PDF Download.

Dennis, David Brandon (2005). Coming out into socialism: the emergence of a political Schwulsein in the German Democratic Republic. Master's Dissertation, Ohio State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

de Vries, Swaeske(2011). (Un)Natural Love: Homosexuality in Late Medieval English Literature: Langland, Chaucer, Gower, and the Gawain Poet. Master's Dissertation, Faculteit der Letteren, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Introduction / Download Page. PDF Download.

Duder, Karen (2001). The Spreading Depths: Lesbian and Bisexual Women in English Canada, 1910-1965. PhD Dissertation, Department of History, University of Victoria. PDF Download. Download Page.

Foote, Learned (2011). Homosexual Democracy in America: Political Ideology and Organization in the Mattachine, 1950-1954. Honors Dissertation, Columbia University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Hanson, Justin Nicholas (2011). Inside The Body Politic: Examining the Birth of Gay Liberation. Honors Research Dissertation, English Department, Ohio State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Hemmilä, Anita (2005). Ancestors of Two-Spirits: Representations Of Native American Third-Gender Males In Historical Documentation: A Critical Discourse Analysis in Anthropology. Graduate Dissertation, University of Jyväskylä. PDF Download. Download Page.

Knowles, Jeremy Joseph (2009). An Investigation into the Relationship Between Gay Activism and the Establishment of a Gay Community in Birmingham, 1967-97. Master's Dissertation, Department of Modern History, University of Birmingham. PDF Download.

Leung M-k (2006). Solitude and solidarity : the history of homosexuality in France, 1940s-1980s. Master's Dissertation, Hong Kong University. Download Page.  Note: Must accept agreement before dissertation is accessed.

Lybeck, Marti M (2008). Gender, Sexuality, and Belonging: Female Homosexuality In Germany, 1890-1933. 2008 Fritz Stern Dissertation Prize Winner, University Of Wisconsin La Crosse. PDF Download.

McCann, Christine A (2010). Transgressing the Boundaries of Holiness: Sexual Deviance in the Early Medieval Penitential Handbooks of Ireland, England and France 500-1000. Master's Dissertation, Seton Hall University. PDF Download.PDF Download. Download Page.

Pastorello, Thierry (2009). Sodome à Paris : protohistoire de l’homosexualité masculine fin XVIIIème - milieu XIXème siècle [Sodom in Paris : protohistory of male homosexuality end XVIIIe - mid nineteenth century]. [Dissertation]Thèse en vue de l’obtention du Doctorat d’histoire, Université Paris Diderot (Paris VII). PDF Download. English Abstract. Download Page & Introduction. Translation.

Schaap, Rudy (2011). State of Emergency: An exploration of attitudes towards homosexuality in the SADF, 1969-1994. Master's Dissertation, History Department, Stellenbosch University. Abstract and Download Page.

Thompson, Jelisa (2011). You Make Me Feel: A Study of the Gay Rights Movement in New Orleans. Honors Dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi. PDF Download.



Beemyn BW (1997).  A Queer Capital: Lesbian, Gay, And Bisexual Life In Washington, D.C., 1890-1955. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Iowa, DAI Vol. 58:08A, p. 3181, 277 pages.

Abstract by author: A Queer Capital focuses upon the Black and white same-sex sexual communities of Washington from the 1890s, the years in which gay life in the city seems to have first been documented, through 1954, when open discrimination in public facilities began to wane following the Supreme Court's banning of segregation in the capital. Unlike most previous works on same-sex sexuality, which either ignored African Americans or assumed that their experiences were the same as whites, this study demonstrates that lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals created communities that were often structured along racial lines and that Black gay social institutions were specifically rooted in African-American culture.

Men and women who were interested in same-sex relationships in Washington created their own social networks and group institutions in the early and mid-twentieth century. Like the larger society of the nation's capital, the communities which developed were often racially segregated. But, for both Blacks and whites, the city's bars, late-night cafeterias, private parties, and other social institutions served as crucial sites of cultural formation. By establishing spaces where they could find emotional support and pursue same-sex relationships, lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals of both races were able to survive one of the worst antigay campaigns in the U.S.

The crackdown against gays, though, did mean that they had to be particularly careful about the disclosure of their sexuality, recognizing that they faced arrest under the police's 'Sexual Perversion Elimination Program' and, for those employed by the government, the loss of their jobs as part of the witch hunt launched by Congress in 1950. Because African Americans who were in the life socialized within Washington's Black neighborhoods, they often faced more obstacles than whites in acting upon their sexuality, which at times led them to take trips outside of the capital. Members of the Black elite, like writer Angelina Weld Grimke, editor and critic Alain Locke, and educators Lucy Slowe and Mary Burrill, were especially circumscribed in Washington society, but they also often had greater opportunities to escape, however briefly, from the sexual strictures of the city.

Publication No.  9805644
 

Bolze TA (1994). Female Impersonation in the United States, 1900-1970. Ph.D. Thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo, DAI Vol. 55-11A, p. 3617, 510 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation examines the chronological history of female impersonation in live theatrical settings throughout much of the twentieth century, suggesting ways in which this history reflects and reveals broader issues in American cultural history.  Female impersonation was a popular staple of the vaudeville stage and remained a viable entertainment in many nightclubs after the demise of vaudeville; it was only gradually that impersonation became linked with homosexuality, and that transition was itself a complex one. In examining female impersonation’s transformation from mainstream to gay-identified entertainment, I suggest that shifting opinions about impersonation were integrally connected to broader changes occurring in American attitudes toward sex and gender. Among the most important topics illuminated by female impersonation are the early twentieth century construction of a consumerist ideal of femininity, the changing aspects of sexual identity in the United States, and the emergence of a distinct gay identity in the U.S.

The dissertation is divided into six chapters. The first two chapters discuss female impersonation’s popular appeal in the vaudeville era and the discomfort raised by this popularity. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the growing stigmatization of female impersonation from the late 1920s through the 1930s and situate the discourse surrounding female impersonation within broader debates over sex, gender, and the nature of sexual identity. Chapter 5 focuses on the nightclubs that featured female impersonators from the 1930s through the 1960s, while Chapter 6 discusses the relationship of female impersonation to the development of a conscious gay identity in the twentieth century. the body of the dissertation concludes with the Stonewall uprising, which fundamentally altered the cultural context of female impersonation.

The sources for this research include popular literature and periodicals, autobiographies, interviews conducted by both myself and others, psychological and child-rearing literature, and gay publications such as One and Mattachine Review. While the interviews are extremely important for reconstructing the milieu of the clubs in which impersonators worked, the popular and psychological literature help to locate female impersonation within a broader cultural context. The research concludes with Esther Newton’s important work Mother Camp: Female Impersonators in America, which provides a powerful look at female impersonation on the eve of Stonewall.

Publication No. 9509092
 

Boyd NA (1995). San Francisco was a wide open town: charting the emergence of lesbian and gay communities through the mid-Twentieth Century. PH.D. Thesis, Brown University, DAI Vol. 56-08A, p. 3181, 295 pages.

Abstract by author: San Francisco’s unique cultural geography enabled lesbian and gay communities to grow and thrive through the mid-twentieth century despite police harassment. More interesting than the history of police persecution, however, are the various cultural and political responses San Francisco’s queer communities engineered in order to resist oppression and protect their unique cultures.  Through the 1950s San Francisco’s homosexual communities articulated an agenda and pursued a number of distinct cultural and political strategies long before similar movements took shape in other large cities. Homophile movements, bar communities, and gay and lesbian entrepreneurs organized a series of coordinated efforts that brought the concerns of San Francisco’s lesbian and gay communities and the concept of homosexual civil rights into the public eye.

At the same time, internal conflicts emerged within queer communities over questions about organizational strategy and public representation. The internal conflicts that ensued enabled new levels of political organizing to emerge even while it divided communities into increasingly distinct factions. This dissertation thus documents a phase in the growth of San Francisco’s lesbian and gay communities in that it traces their evolution through the mid-century and historicizes the convergence of increasingly distinct cultural and political movements. It is primarily concerned with the disparate social, cultural, and political strategies that emerged within and among San Francisco’s lesbian and gay communities through the 1950s and early 1960s.

Publication No. 9540730
 

Brayne A (1988). The changing depiction of homosexual people in twentieth century British drama. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Warwick (United Kingdom), DAI Vol. 50:12A, p. 3795, 440 pages.

Abstract by author: This thesis studies how the image of homosexual people has evolved on the British stage during the present century. It aims to discern general trends rather than compile an exhaustive list of plays containing homosexual characters. Similarly, it is not intended to be a compendium of homosexual playwrights, but will focus on the contents of the drama rather than the biographical details of authors’ lives. It makes no attempt to analyse work that is not ostensibly homosexual which could be argued to contain latent homosexual content. Nor, finally, does it discuss phenomena of interest in this field which are tangential to the area of study—for example, cross-dressing in pantomime and music hall. At the risk of superficiality, it concentrates on plays that have tried to discuss homosexuality and depict gay characters in an open, straight-forward manner. The approach taken to the subject has been historical and sociological, linking developments in gay drama to the social and political situation facing homosexual people throughout the present century.  As such, this thesis argues for the existence of seven stages in homosexual drama during this time.

While plays cannot always be fitted into a rigid chronological schema - some overlap clearly occurs - the history of homosexual drama can be briefly summarised as follows: (1) Silence. (2) The first plays depict homosexual characters, but these are generally censored heavily or closed down. (3) Plays begin to raise the subject more boldly, but only by portraying characters who are wrongly accused of homosexuality or about whose sexuality there is left some doubt. (4) Homosexual characters are depicted openly as such, but they conform to degrading stereotypes. (5) Gay people break away to create their own separatist drama, generally intending to proselytise in favour of gay rights. (6) Mainstream plays on the West End and television begin to feature gay people in an unsensationalised way. (7) AIDS arrives and dominates homosexual drama. Although this study concentrates on British drama, theatre is now an international phenomenon, and this has been especially true of gay drama.  Therefore, it has often been necessary to refer to the drama of other countries, in particular America.

Publication No.
 

Buccioni EM (1996). The Path of Eros. M.A. Thesis, University of Guelph (Canada), MAI Vol. 35-03, p. 662, 103 pages, ISBN: 0-612-14371-6.

Abstract by author: This thesis critically examines the inter-connectedness of the three pederastic speeches in Plato’s Phaedrus. I argue that the intricate threads connecting the speeches must be sought within the historical context of popular Athenian morality. The approach Plato has chosen to convey his concept of eros reflects the social attitude (i.e. laws, conventions, practices and beliefs) toward homosexual relations between Athenian citizens. He leads his audience from a recognition of the most reprehensible form of pederasty to an initiation into its highest form.

 I examine the first speech against the backdrop of the legal constraints on pederasty the contemporary audience was aware of. The second speech delineates the shortcomings of the popular view of morality that operate on the dichotomy between hybris and sophrosune. The third speech reveals Plato’s own view of pederasty as transcending both fear of public opinion and conformity to popular morality.

Publication No.  MM14371
 

Chenier ER (1995).  Tough Ladies And Troublemakers: Toronto's Public Lesbian Community, 1955-1965. Master's Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston, MAI Vol. 34:02, p. 573, 253 pages, ISBN:  0-612-00699-9

Abstract by author: None.

Publication No.  MM00699
 

Chung H (1986). Paiderastia In Sophocles' 'Philoctetes'. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southern California, DAI Vol. 47:07A, p. 2571.

Abstract by author: The Philoctetes of Sophocles is a play which deals with the theme of the spiritually ennobling homoerotic relationship between men. But classicists have largely ignored the topic of ancient Greek homoerotism because of a fierce bias against homosexuality in modern times and consequently have seldom mentioned it for the understanding of Greek tragedy. But it is of the utmost importance for an understanding both of Greek tragedy and also of fifth century Greek culture and society in general. The purpose of this dissertation is, therefore, to illuminate Sophocles' Philoctetes in light of its central homoerotic themes. In ancient Greek homoerotism we find characteristics which are quite different from those of modern homosexuality.

Greek pederasty is always the relationship of an older dominant partner and a subordinate youth. The erastes (lover) guides and instructs his younger eromenos (beloved) in aristocratic male ideals and thereby passes on everything he cherishes. He devotes himself to developing the moral and intellectual growth of his younger partner. The eromenos, on the other side, takes the older man as the guide and model whose status he emulates. The love between an older man and a younger boy was thus the chosen ground for noble aspiration.

Chapter I attempts to explain the general characteristics, positive motives and values of male pederastic relationships in ancient Greece. This provides us with the necessary background to understand the Philoctetes of Sophocles. Chapter II deals with female homoerotism in ancient Greece, which is a counterpart to the male pederastic relationship. Chapter III, the main part of this thesis, is an analysis of Philoctetes that treats the theme of homosexual eros. Sophocles is undoubtedly reflecting the social phenomena of his own time in this play.

Through the dilemma a youth faces, when he has to choose the right erastes, Sophocles explores the contemporary social issues involved in pederastic relationships - the problem of the good erastes and the bad erastes which is also discussed in the works of Plato. In this play Philoctetes, a lonely outcast, is revealed to be the right erastes for the noble son of Achilles, Neoptolemus, rather than the shrewd, crafty Odysseus. (Copies available exclusively from Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, USC, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182.)

Publication No.
 

Craft CC (1989). Another kind of Love: sodomy, inversion, and male homosexual desire in English discourse, 1850-1897 (Tennyson, Wilde, Stoker, Ellis, and Symonds) Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, DAI Vol. 50:10A, p. 3233, 191 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation correlates two modes or strains of discourse which, until recently, have been conveniently held apart, separated by a sanitizing disjunction: (1) a historically continuous ecclesiastical/juridical/medical discourse on, variously, ‘sodomy,’ ‘sexual inversion,’ and ‘homosexuality’; and (2) literary discourse proper, herein represented by a long poem (Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s In Memoriam), a Gothic novel (Bram Stoker’s Dracula), and a play (Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest).

Arguing that these distinct discursive modes are in fact deeply intervolved and interanimating, the dissertation pursues their relations in texts primarily of the Victorian period, during which time English writers produced their first sustained public discourse on the subject of homosexual desire, including, most centrally, Sexual Inversion (1896), a text originally authored jointly by Havelock Ellis and John Addington Symonds. The historical and literary analyses are structured as follows.

Chapter One, ‘Alias Sodomy,’ investigates the historical process by which modern notions of sexual inversion and homosexuality inherited the conceptual domain formerly organized under the rubric ‘sodomy,’ itself an unstable and ‘utterly confused category’ (as Foucault was once moved to call it); more than lexical, this transformation entails nothing less than a paradigm shift with large implications for gender and subjectivity.

Chapter Two, entitled "Descend, and Touch, and Enter," takes its cue from a case history in Sexual Inversion and reads Tennyson’s In Memoriam as a desiring machine which enables male homosexual desire, but enables it only as a specifically elegiac desire: as a desire for the dead which precludes the possibility of touch, embrace, connection except as these are displaced into (the fantasy of) a closural embrace with Christ.

Chapter Three, "Kiss Me With Those Red Lips," extends this investigation of eros and thanatos by reading Dracula as a Gothic displacement of the inversion paradigm, a displacement in which the gender structure of inversion is diachronically enacted as a narrative about unnatural or monstrous penetration.

Finally, Chapter Four, entitled "Alias Bunbury," reads The Importance of Being Earnest as a gay countertext in which Wilde parodically deconstructs the ontological bases of both sexual inversion and sexual essentialism. Beginning with another case history from Sexual Inversion, this chapter goes on to explore the specifically homosexual implications of Wilde’s titular pun.

Publication No.  9006292
 

Duemer LS (1993). The History of the reserve officer training corps among the Association of American Universities from 1982 to 1992: review of educational administrator responses to policy regarding homosexuals. M.A. Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, MAI 35:04, p. 935, 72 pages.

Abstract by author: A historical review of how administrators have responded to ROTC exclusion of homosexuals from 1982 to 1993, focusing on AAU institutions is provided. Background information explains the history, mission, curriculum, and policy regarding homosexuals. The thesis reviews the different responses administrators at AAU institutions have taken. These include approval of ROTC in spite of conflict with institutional policies barring discrimination, neutrality, collective action, barring military recruiters, eliminating ROTC and distancing the institution from ROTC. It also covers precipitating events which preceded administrator responses, leaks of Pentagon research reports on homosexuals in the armed forces and dismissal of several ROTC cadets for revealing homosexuality followed by ROTC requests to obtain repayment of cadet scholarship money. A bibliography is included.

Publication No. 1383807
 

Dunn LA (1998). The Evolution Of Imperial Roman Attitudes  Toward Same-Sex Acts. Ph.D. Thesis, Miami University, DAI Vol 59:03A, p. 916, 362 pages.

Abstract by author: There are two purposes to this dissertation. The first is to identify the different attitudes toward same-sex acts that existed in Roman society from the late Republic until the time of Justinian and to show how those attitudes changed over time. The second purpose is to identify the agent(s) of change that brought about the transformation in Roman culture and law regarding same-sex acts. We begin, in the introduction, with some background information regarding Greek attitudes toward same-sex relationships and discuss how Hellenization affected Roman views of same-sex acts.

Part one, which forms the bulk of the dissertation, analyzes different schools of thought regarding same-sex acts. We start with the philosophical tradition which opposed all non-procreative sexual acts. Next we look at the popular tradition which accepted same-sex relationships as part of the social fabric, yet condemned those who played the passive role in a same-sex act. In the Jewish and Christian traditions, we find that same-sex acts were proscribed either because they involved gender boundary transgressions or because they were non-procreative.

Part two of the dissertation focuses on law codes that dealt with same-sex acts. We learn that the earliest laws were issued to protect the integrity of freeborn youths. Later laws (fourth-century CE) made it a capital crime to play the passive role in a same-sex act, while Justinian (sixth-century CE) condemned to death all parties in same-sex relationships, regardless of the role played. In part three, we analyze why Rome moved from accepting same-sex love as a normal part of its social fabric to classifying it as a capital crime.

We conclude that the two main reasons for this transformation in Roman thought were: (1) the aversion to gender boundary transgressions which was inherent in Roman culture, and (2) the triumph of the Christian belief that only procreative sexual acts are legitimate. We also conclude that Christianity was not solely responsible for the condemnation of same-sex relationships. Roman condemnation of same-sex acts resulted from an interplay of forces which was then carried forward by the Christian Church.

Publication No.  9828458
 

Euler CA (1995). Moving Between Worlds: Gender, Class, Politics, Sexuality And Women's Networks In The Diaries Of Anne Lister Of Shibden Hall, Halifax, Yorkshire, 1830-1840. Ph.D. Thesis, University of York, DAI Vol. 57:03C, p. 790, 425 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation comprises an analysis of the interconnections of gender, class, politics, sexuality and female networks as these operated within the recorded life of Anne Lister (1791-1840), a 'masculine' and lesbian member of the minor landed gentry in the West Riding of Yorkshire. A scholar, traveller and businesswoman, Lister left an enormous, approximately four million-word journal, part of which was written in a crypt of her own devising. While other studies have focused on the production of discourses and their effect in creating passively-inscribed identities, this work will focus on Lister's reception of discourses, her active manipulation of these, and her creation of an identity based partly upon class, partly upon gender, and partly upon her sexual practice. Thus, it represents a major revision of at least one of Foucault's basic premises.

Few studies have analyzed the role of women in the gentry to this extent. Lister managed a landed estate in an industrializing area. Estate business included coal-mining, quarrying, mill-building, and investments in roads and canals. A staunch Tory Anglican, she felt that her property gave her the right to dictate the votes of her tenants, and this became more possible following the Reform Act of 1832. Over the course of her life Lister had a number of affairs with women in the gentry and aristocracy, but during the period focused upon here, 1830-1840, Lister had settled into a lesbian marriage with another local heiress, Ann Walker. The gendered power dynamics of their relationship are explored, as are the languages Lister uses to record sexual practice.

Lister maintained an extensive correspondence with women in the gentry and aristocracy up to the time of her death. These networks operated both as systems of support and systems of constraint. After her death, the property arrangements she had made with her partner caused difficulties for both families. Property laws recognized only heterosexual transmission, upon which the landed gentry depended for its survival. The Lister journals represent the earliest and most detailed personal evidence of upper-class lesbian lives known to Western historians. The wealth of detail available in matters of gender, class, politics and women's networks is also unprecedented. The journals are thus a vital source in women's history. They simultaneously show how Lister and the women in her world were fundamentally shaped by the dominant discourses of their time while also demonstrating the power of women's agency to resist and shape those discourses for their own benefit.

Publication No.
 

Foley BF (1993). Significant others: gay subcultural histories and practices. M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University (Canada), MAI 33:02, p. 437, 226 pages, ISBN: 0-315-91109-3.

Abstract by author: Contemporary gay cultural practices affirm the identities of individual men and their communities which have evolved over the past twenty-five years in various metropolitan centres. Cultural critics and theorists, however, have not acknowledged, addressed or perhaps even recognized gay cultural activities of resistance and opposition. The failure to perceive this subculture limits contemporary criticism of film and music, for example, and perpetuates hegemonic oppression of gay men. This thesis attempts to explain what is missing from the work of cultural studies and theory. The absence of analyses of gay cultural productions in cultural theory is first identified, the consequences of which are then suggested, and a framework for introducing discussion and analyses of gay cultural productions is drafted. This framework, of necessity, demands an historical overview of Western religious, medical and legal systems because, unlike other youth and subcultural groupings which are discussed in contemporary cultural studies, homosexual oppression and resistance is perhaps systemic. After this theoretical analysis, the thesis then examines cultural productions in film and popular music, suggesting ways in which an understanding of gay subcultural practices enhances cultural theory in general and textual analysis of both film and music in particular.

Publication No.  MM91109
 

Garner AC (1995). The criminalization of homosexuality: an historical and legal analysis of the sodomy statute. M.S. Thesis, Central Missouri State University, MAI Vol. 34:01, p. 137, 92 pages.

Abstract by author: Homosexual sodomy has been a crime for centuries.  Although revered by the Ancient Greeks, it was an offense punishable by death under Roman, English, and Colonial Law. Statutes criminalizing consensual same-sex sexual activity are currently codified in twenty-four states and the District of Columbia; prior to 1961, all fifty states prohibited the expression of such sexual acts by way of sodomy statutes. The Supreme Court ruled on June 30, 1986, that each state may continue to legislate rules for the constraint of sexual conduct, whether such conduct takes place in public or in the privacy of one’s bedroom. Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) revealed that privacy was not a constitutional right afforded to sodomy practitioners. By using archival documentation and the case method of legal research, this thesis shall analyze the historical and legal rationalizations for the criminalization of homosexual sexuality.

Publication No. 1375243
 

Green JN (1996). Beyond Carnival: Homosexuality in twentieth-century Brazil. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, DAI Vol. 57-07A, p. 3206, 421 pages.

Abstract by author: This social and cultural history of homosexuality in twentieth-century Brazil examines the development of a subculture in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo and the appropriation, use, and expansion of urban space for same-sex erotic sociability. The image of uninhibited and licentious Brazilian homosexuals, expressing sensuality, sexuality, and camp during Carnival festivities, has come to be equated with an alleged cultural and social toleration for homosexuality or bisexuality in Brazil. Apparent permissiveness during Carnival, so the stereotype goes, symbolizes a sexual and social regime that unabashedly accepts fluid sexual identity, including male-to-male sexuality. By widening the perspective beyond the gender transgressions which take place during Carnival, this study examines the broader social and cultural realities of male homosexuality. Using police and medical records, newspapers, literature, homecrafted newsletters, and oral interviews, this project recreates the lives of men coping with arrests and street violence, negotiating around family restrictions, developing alternative support networks, having sexual adventures, and maintaining relationships.

The first two chapters examine the formation of same-sex subcultures in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo in the early twentieth century. This is followed by an analysis of the medicalization of homosexuality in the 1920s and ‘30s and the means by which medical and legal professionals attempted to control, contain, and cure this ‘deviant’ behavior. A fifth chapter maps the expansion of urban spaces, both public and private, in the post-World War II period. The final section explores the emergence of new gay identities in the 1960s and the first stages of politicalization of activists in the late 1970s. By this time, I argue, a new social and political situation among Brazilian gay men led to the development of a social movement that mobilized its members against discrimination, social stereotypes, and the marginal status of Brazilian homosexuals in everyday life.

This study of men who have crossed sexual boundaries, in turn, reflects back on the overall framework of Brazilian social values and rules of acceptable behavior and as such reveals much about normative definitions of masculinity and femininity.

Publication No.  9640230
 

Healy RM (1997). Homoerotic desire and narrative dilation in Elizabehtan England. PH.D. Thesis, University of Miami, DAI Vol. 58:08A, p. 3143, 219 pages.

Abstract by author: Even canonical literature - such as Spenserian pastoral and epic, Shakespearean history and comedy - registers the social constructs that shape cultural ideologies, including ideologies of sexuality. My premise is that representations of unorthodox sexuality materially affect the structure of The Shepheardes Calender, The Faerie Queene, Richard II, and The Merry Wives of Windsor.  Consequently, my purpose is to examine these works of various genres to demonstrate how the portrayal of homoerotic desire produces narrative dilation and resistance to closure. While narratology and homosexuality are frequently studied separately, a historically informed analysis correlating both fields of interest may yield valuable insights into early modern English literature and culture.

Publication No.  9805963
 

Hewitt TF (1983). The American Church's reaction to the homophile movement, 1948-1978. Ph.D. Thesis, DAI Vol. 45:01A, p. 211408 pages.

Abstract by author: The issue of the Church’s acceptance of persons with a homosexual orientation emerged tentively with the statistics made public in the Kinsey Report (1948) and exploded with the advent of the ‘gay rights’ movement (1969). This study documents that emerging debate in the American Church, 1948-1978, focusing on selected writers and three ecclesiastical bodies: United Methodists, Southern Baptists, and Roman Catholics. In addition to a descriptive focus, the study also examines the influence of biblical presuppositions and input from the social sciences on individual and group attitudes toward homosexuals. Specifically, the study proposes that it is the granting of authority to either the Bible or science that determines one’s place in the continuum of attitudinal categories proposed by James Nelson in 1977: rejecting-punitve, rejecting-nonpunitive, qualified acceptance, and full acceptance. Part One (Chapters I-II) constitutes a descriptive account of the reaction of Church and society to the emergence of the homophile movement in the 1948-1978 period as well as an historical review of the Church’s attitude toward homosexuals through the nineteenth century. Part Two (Chapters III-V) documents the use of both the Bible and data from the social sciences, and analyzes such use according to various writers’ place in the categories suggested by Nelson. Chapter V traces the debate over the acceptability of homosexuality in several American church bodies, with major attention given to United Methodists, Southern Baptists, and Roman Catholics; minor attention is given to the United Church of Christ, the Episcopal Church, and the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. The Conclusion (Chapter VI) suggests that the ‘qualifies acceptance’ stance is the most feasible, defensible stance for the Church as a whole.

Publication No.  8408561
 

Hicksin A (1991). From sinful to a dangerous minority: the changing conceptualization of homosexuality in postwar Britain. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Essex, DAI Vol. 55:01C.

Abstract by author: The focus of this thesis is changing public perceptions of homosexual behavior. It is not primarily an analysis of shifting academic notions of homosexuality. Using evidence from three case studies of newspaper coverage, it argues against the view that the concept of ‘the homosexual’ emerged abruptly into common usage in the late nineteenth century. Although examples of the notion of the ‘homosexual person’ can be found at various times in history, in Britain it is not until after the 1960s that the concept becomes an accepted part of the common knowledge. The first case study demonstrates that in the 1950s homosexuality was still viewed fundamentally as a sinful aberration. It was not considered to be the cause of the perceived contemporary moral decline, but was, instead, regarded as a manifestation of the ‘underlying malaise’. It was a ‘condition’ which ‘prayed’ on the ‘decadent’ and the ‘dissolute’. The second case study, likewise, shows that even by 1967 there was little discussion at the level of popular discourse of ‘congenital homosexuality’ or of a ‘homosexual minority’. The homosexual actor of the newspaper stories was usually a ‘monstrous criminal’, a ‘beast’ or ‘animal’, whose activities defied a precise etiology. A rhetoric of danger to ‘disobedient’ youth had replaced the former sermons of church leaders and politicians, but the conceptualization of homosexual behaviour remained much the same in one respect; the homosexual was still first and foremost an ‘aberrant’ and any notion of his/her membership of a ‘minority population’ was limited to academia and the lesbian and gay subculture. It was only in the third case study, that of the newspaper discourse around the issue of AIDS in 1987, that there can be seen the clear emergence of the concept of a ‘homosexual minority’ and its antithesis - the ‘general population’. However, far from helping to reduce social prejudice, the new ideology appears to have stiffened the control of sexuality and to have heightened homophobia.

Publication No.

Howard J (1997). Men like that: male homosexualities in Mississippi, 1945-1985. PH.D. Thesis, Emory University, DAI Vol. 58:11A, p. 4319, 416 pages.

Abstract by author: This work examines sexual and gender non-conformity, specifically male homosexualities and male-to-female transgender sexualities, in Mississippi, 1945 to 1985. In contrast to urban-centered and identity-focused models of American lesbian and gay history, the dissertation attends to queer desire, both identity-based and not, in small-towns and rural settings of meager economic resources. Informed by queer theory and spatial theory, the work argues that notions and experiences of male-male desire are in perpetual, dialectical relationship with the spaces in which they occur, mutually shaping one another. A critical vector of spatial segregation - race - resulted in similar, parallel, black and white queer worlds that rarely intersected prior to the 1960s. Until then, queer sexualities were intricately but problematically incorporated into the institutions of everyday life—home, church, school, workplace—on either side of the color line.

The increasing linkage between queer sexuality and the civil rights movement meant that sexual and gender non-conformity were more vigorously policed and punished after the early 1960s. This work further assesses popular representations of homosexuality in Mississippi, as it complicates distinctions between high and low culture and between queer and mainstream cultural products. Mississippians did not passively receive, but actively created and engaged with those representations, interpreting and transforming them for their own needs and desires.  Similarly, in an overwhelmingly Protestant region, queer Mississippians refashioned an evermore vocal, oppressive Christian tradition such that new relationships between sexuality and spirituality made possible alternative ways of living.

On the eve of the AIDS crisis, identity-based gay religious and political organizations proved threatening to the established order. High-profile political scandals reflected a backlash against a queer presence in public life, even as they evidenced and articulated that presence. Yet, just as cultural representations trafficked in racial, sexual, and gender hierarchies, political discourses reinforced and extended such societal inequalities, relegating various groups and individuals to normalized and marginalized spaces.  The dissertation relies on lived experiences as recuperated through oral history interviews, organizational records, court cases, gay and mainstream periodicals, site plans, road maps, fiction, song, film, physique art, editorial cartoons, and political campaign literature.

Publication No.  9814589
 

Kapack JS (1992). Chinese male homosexuality: sexual identity formation and gay organizational development in a contemporary chinese population. Ph.D. Thesis, University Of Toronto, DAI Vol. 53: 12A, p. 4380, 507 pages. ISBN:  0-315-73726-3

Abstract by author: The thesis examines some cultural, historical and political elements in the development of homosexual identities and communal formations among contemporary Chinese men. The analysis derives in part from an anthropological exploration of various theoretical issues in the historical and social development of sexual identities, drawing upon these perspectives and upon fieldwork conducted with homosexual Chinese men in a North American setting. Various features of male gender and sexuality among contemporary Chinese populations and their relevance to an understanding of the development of a homosexual or gay consciousness among Chinese men are examined. One part of the analysis is historical in nature, examining cultural patterns of male homosexual behaviour in nineteenth-century Chinese populations. It is argued that these older patterns express a fundamentally different cultural organization of gender and sexuality than contemporary realities. These older patterns are organized through definitions of gender which show little similarity to contemporary models of sexual orientation or types of desire differentiated on the basis of biological sex. It is also proposed that the widespread development of a homosexual or gay consciousness and identity among Chinese men is a fairly recent historical development. Various aspects of this proposal are examined through life histories conducted with homosexual men of Hong Kong and Malaysian backgrounds. I argue that such men constitute a part of the 'first generation' of gay-identified Chinese men, a generation whose political and organizational activities have led in the 1980's to the emergence of a Chinese gay liberation movement in various regions. Developmental and organizational features of these social formations are also discussed.

Publication No.  NN73726
 

Lankewish VA (1997). Strange nuptials: male-male desire and marriage in Victorian literature. PH.D. Thesis, Rutgers The State University of New York - New Brunswick, DAI Vol. 58:07A, p. 2669, 371 pages.

Abstract by author: Much has been written about the construction of homosexual identity in nineteenth-century English literature, yet no study has focused on the problems of genre posed by Victorian male writers who appropriate heterosexual marriage as a model for representing intimacy between men. These writers, however, do not simply imitate the social and literary conventions associated with conjugality.  Their adoption of nuptial images and marriage plots represents an effort to develop a language of male love that questions the naturalness of heterosexual matrimony and that challenges conventional conceptions of genre. In Chapter One I argue that although Ruskin and Pater were deeply interested in the revival of Greek, Medieval, and Renaissance cultures, these writers embedded within their discussions of these historical periods their anxieties about and their enthusiasm for male intimacy. While Ruskin distances himself from the dangers of masculine desire inherent in Hellenism, Pater views classical culture as a means of legitimizing male love. In Chapter Two I intervene in recent debates about homosexual appropriations of heterosexual cultural practices, asserting that literary representations of same-sex marriages attempt to denaturalize relations between men and women, as well as genres. In Chapter Three I explore the erotic implications of ‘spiritual marriages’ between Christians and Christ in Victorian ‘Early Christian’ novels. These marriages represent a rejection of reproductive sexuality and an unexpected endorsement of Hellenism. In Chapter Four I argue that Tennyson and Hopkins ironically appropriate the epithalamion as a means of articulating male love. By engaging with a form whose primary conventions include a mandate that married couples procreate, these writers challenge the constraints of genre. In Chapter Five I argue that late-Victorian homosexual pornography reflects a longing to recover a more infamous site of same-sex desire than ancient Greece—the Cities of the Plain—and attempts to rewrite the narrative of these cities’ destruction by imagining the birth of a new generation of Sodomites. In the Conclusion I argue that Forster pursues this desire for homosexual perpetuity by envisioning a new Eden in which men may love one another without fear.

Publication No.  9800272
 

Leib FB (1995). The moral vision of Edward Carpenter: sacred homosexuality and the genesis of gay liberation.Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University, DAI Vol. 56-04A, p. 1392, 489 pages.

Abstract by author: More than any other historical figure, Edward Carpenter (1844-1924) deserves to be called the father and founder of the modern gay liberation movement. Others among his contemporaries called for a reconsideration of the whole phenomenon of homosexual attachments, but almost without exception, these men (for the most part, German by nationality and physicians by profession) tended to think of homosexuality as essentially a psychological or even biological anomaly, a sort of fluke of nature. They defended the homosexual life style on the grounds that it was essentially harmless, and they asked for ‘toleration’ rather than for genuine equality. Carpenter, who was English by background and who was educated as an Anglican priest, consciously rejected the ‘medical model’ for explaining homosexuality. Appealing to key Biblical texts and to such classical humanist documents as Plato’s Symposium and Michelangelo’s sonnets, Carpenter understood homosexuality, not as psychological enigma, but as a privileged spiritual estate—in theological terms, as a ‘gratuitous grace,’ or unearned gift of God.  Carpenter argued that love between men was not simply a ‘harmless’ but was actually a very positive social force. He felt that it should not so much be tolerated as encouraged, not as an alternative to the traditional family but as an adjunct to it. A youthful friend (and lover) of the American poet, Walt Whitman, Carpenter spelled out the implications of the latter’s notion that male ‘comradeship’ was the basic building block of democracy. Throughout his life, Carpenter campaigned for human rights and for world peace, helping to found the British Labour Party and doing pioneer work for British feminism.  More important (in his own eyes) Carpenter campaigned for a reform in traditional religious notions about the spiritual value of love between men. On the basis of his own conviction of the essentially homosexual nature of the psychology of Jesus, Carpenter advocated the institution of a ‘Sacrament of Friendship,’ which would consecrate homosexual unions and emphasize the fundamental sanctity of all human love as a vehicle for divine love.

Publication No.  9527507
 

Lofstrom JM (1994). The social construction of homosexuality in finnish society, from the late nineteenth century to the 1950's. Ph.D. Thesis, University Of Essex, DAI Vol. 56: 03C, p. 608, 700 pages.

Abstract by author: This thesis explores how the conceptual category 'homosexuality' and the social aggregate 'homosexuals' appeared in Finnish culture and society in the period from the 1870's to the 1950's. The focus is on the conceptualization and practice of genital, emotional, and social same-sex intimacy. Amongst the sources for the research, folklore and ethnographic material have a prominent place. The conspicuous feature of the discourses on homosexuality in Finland in this period was a very calm attitude toward homosexuality and sexual deviance in general. They were not a taboo but the discussion was very limited. Only in the 1950's did the homosexual category begin to become more widely established in the vocabulary and consciousness of Finnish people. The thesis interprets the appearance of the 'modern homosexual' in Finland from the perspective of how the emergence of the modern homosexual category has been accounted for in earlier, mainly Anglo-Saxon research. There have been three approaches: those emphazising (a) the role of urbanization, capitalism, and middle class self-promotion; (b) the rise of the bureaucratic state and the medical profession; and (c) the role of gender relations and challenges to the gender system. All the approaches offer some insight into the problem as to why the issue of homosexuality was so marginal in Finnish discourses.  Urbanization and class relations in Finland appeared different from Northwest Europe since Finland became an industrialized and urbanized society only in the 1960's. A most important feature is, however, that the strong nationalist sentiment among the Finnish upper class and peasantry, and the relatively strong civic society at the turn of the century created a configuration wherein sexuality was not likely to be used as a weapon in symbolic politics by the upper classes. Furthermore, the element of rurality in Finnish culture remained strong until the 1950's. In rural culture the male and female gender were not seen as binary opposed categories; gender transgression could not be interpreted in terms of an overall gender inversion because such an inversion required a conception of binary opposed genders, and hence it did not make sense in rural culture.  This thesis proposes that homosexualizing interpretations of same-sex intimacy gained plausibility in Finland only gradually as the older, rural views of gender gave way to a more binarist 'equality in difference' paradigm.
 

Meyer AM (1996). Outlaw representation: censorship and homosexuality in American art, 1934-1992. PH.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, DAI Vol. 58:02A, p. 325, 389 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation maps the relationship between censorship and male homosexuality in twentieth-century American art. It is organized as a series of close readings of historical episodes in which work by gay male artists was suppressed or censored outright, beginning with the federal confiscation of Paul Cadmus’ 1934 painting, The Fleet’s In!, and concluding with the censorship of work by the AIDS activist collective Gran Fury in 1989 and 1990.

In each chapter, a specific moment of censorship launches a larger analysis of the representation of homosexual difference and desire in American art. This analysis attends both to the constraints placed on the production of such representations and to the various modes (art-critical, mass cultural, ‘underground’) of their reception. At its core, Outlaw Representation is concerned with how specific moments of censorship throw into relief larger questions of homosexual representation and its erasure within twentieth-century American art.

Rather than offering an iconographic account of ‘homosexual imagery’ in American art, this project analyzes a series of historical episodes in which issues of artistic and sexual freedom have intersected. The censorship of Paul Cadmus in the 1930s, Andy Warhol in the 1950s and early 1960s, Robert Mapplethorpe in the late 1970s and 1980s, and David Wojnarowicz and Gran Fury (an AIDS activist art collective) in the late 1980s and early 1990s constitute the case studies around which this project is organized.

Each of these artists pursued a distinct set of professional ambitions and stylistic commitments and negotiated a different set of historical constraints and possibilities. Yet, in each case, their work was subjected to an act of attempted or actual censorship that marked a larger moment of cultural anxiety concerning homosexuality. What range of responses did these acts of censorship provoke? How was the ‘problem’ of homosexuality acknowledged—or avoided—in those responses? How did the circumstances of censorship serve both to repress and to recirculate the artworks at issue?

To address these questions, Outlaw Representation tracks the coverage of censorship in contemporary press accounts, popular cartoons, art reviews, trial transcripts, government proceedings, organizational mailings, social protests, and artists’ writings. Although this project moves in a chronological fashion, it does not propose a progressive history in which gay male artists become ever more adept at overcoming the circumstances of censorship and forced invisibility.

Instead, it looks at the specific terms under which censorship and homosexuality have intersected, and sometimes collided, within twentieth century American art.

Publication No.
 

Organ JE (1998). Sexuality is a category of historical analysis: a study of Judge Florence E. Allen, 1884-1966. PH.D. Thesis, Case Western Reserve University, DAI Vol. 58-12A, p. 4781, 286 pages.

Abstract by author: ‘Ohio girl’ and Cleveland native Judge Florence Ellinwood Allen (1884-1966), first woman elected to the Common Pleas Court in the United States, first woman to be elected as a state supreme court judge, first woman to be appointed a federal court judge, and first woman candidate for appointment to the United States Supreme Court, ‘never married.’ Because Allen’s primary relationship was not with a man, her private life—in particular her relationships with other women—has been ignored in Cleveland history, legal history, and social policy history. All are impoverished by this consistent refusal to deal with the significance of women’s relationships. Allen’s professional career certainly demonstrates her close connection between suffrage activism and later social policy activism. Her activism alone, however, inadequately accounts for her professional success.  As one of a group of ‘never married’ professional women who turned their social policy concerns into professional careers, Allen demonstrates the importance of homosexual networks in facilitating women’s success. Using sexuality as a category of historical analysis begins the process of examining the interconnectedness of women’s personal lives to their professional careers and explaining the importance of homosexual networks as means for effecting social change. This is a network study of a particularly influential subset of ‘never-married women’: they used the law to significantly advance women’s rights issues. Using Florence Allen as a focal point, this work shows that Allen et al. were among the many early twentieth-century ‘never married’ women lawyers who practiced law together during the day and lived together at night.  In the process, they contributed significantly to Cleveland’s reputation as a well-run city and gradually grew into a powerful regional and national network of women lawyers and activists.

Publication No.  9818875
 

Peniston WA (!997). Pederasts and others: a social hiatory of male homosexuals in the early years of the French Third Republic. PH.D. Thesis, The University of Rochester, DAI Vol 58:04A, p. 1414, 316 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation is about the male homosexual subculture of Paris in the 1870s. It was composed of a group of men, whose relationships with one another provided them with various means of financial and emotional support, and whose behavior defied cultural norms. It was not unique to Paris, nor was it new to the 1870s. It had existed in one form or another for quite some time, and it had much in common with other homosexual subcultures in other European cities. Through its contact with the police, the courts, the medical profession, and the intellectual elites, it had a profound, widespread, and lasting influence upon the development of modern sexual identities. Based upon a ledger of arrests for public offenses against decency, which was kept by the Prefecture of the Police in Paris during the early years of the French Third Republic, this dissertation will first examine the methods and attitudes of the police, which led them to instigate a policy of surveillance and harassment against the male homosexual subculture of nineteenth-century Paris. It will then attempt to analyze the subculture in terms of its composition, its relationships, its behavior, and its geographical distribution. It will demonstrate that, despite the activities of the police, which went beyond their charge of simply enforcing the law, the subculture managed to establish its own particular way of life.  Most of the men involved in the subculture were in their twenties and thirties, working in unskilled, skilled, clerical, or service positions, having immigrated from the provinces. They were struggling to make a living and to form friendships and relationships in a difficult urban environment.  Sometimes they resorted to prostitution and thievery in order to support themselves, but at other times they were just pursuing their own sexual pleasures.

Publication No.  9729042
 

Petit M (1997). The queer rise of the novel: new readings in the Eighteenth-Century British novel, from Defoe to Austen. PH.D. Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, DAI Vol. 58:07A, p. 2671, 323 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation examines the rise of the eighteenth-century British novel and the ways in which it is inflected by the contemporaneous emergence of sodomitical and sapphic identities organized around same-sex desires and activities.  The novel is part of an ideological struggle that bears the traces of the dominant culture’s attempt to silence by ridicule, invisibility, or violence same-sex identities as an ‘other’ in order to reify the ‘naturalness’ of bourgeois male heterosexual subjectivity and to promote British nationalism and the colonialist project. Three discursive strategies are marked by the novel: the confusion new sexual identities wrought, the retreat of those identities into text, and the ironic silencing of identity the novel helps instantiate, even as it opens new possibilities for oppositional readings and productions of meaning. Critical of postmodern identity theory, the dissertation is organized as a series of histories and close readings intended to contribute toward the recuperation of a gay and lesbian past that has been suppressed and denied.  The work examines the cultural contexts and historical background of same-sex desire in eighteenth-century England. Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe is discussed with reference to its role in silencing same-sex identity, even as it positions the dyadic same-sex relationship of Crusoe and Friday as central. Works of the mid-century Pamela vogue are examined as a semi-explicit acknowledgement of same-sex identities; the novels’ overdetermined use of satire is a particular literary strategy that allows yet simultaneously negates the representation of alternative sexualities, including those of known sodomites of the time. Jane Austen’s exploration of female friendship and same-sex desire is arguably the most sophisticated and open treatment of sapphic desire in the long eighteenth century; even though the novels end with traditional heterosexual marriage, they do not close the transgressive possibilities opened. Despite contemporary literary critics’ efforts to silence same-sex desires and activities, queer contributions to society are at the center of the construction of meaning, novels included. Recuperating queer identity enriches eighteenth-century scholarship and thereby the historical record linking that time to our own.

Publication No.  9800554
 

Pittenger E (1995). The traffic in pages: pedagogy, pedastry, and printing in the english renaissance. Ph.D Thesis, The John Hopkins University, DAI 56/03A, p. 946, 239 pages.

Abstract by author: 'The Traffic in Pages' traces the workings of the textual and sexual economies that depend upon the circulation of 'pages,' both letters and boys. Ideals of cultural transmission are troubled by 'aberrations' that disrupt normative expectations: pederasty disrupts the efficiency of pedagogical functioning, attraction to page boys confuses the domestic alliances between men, and errant letters disrupt the communicative functions of signs. The case of Nicholas Udall, the only pedagogue prosecuted by the Privy Council for pederasty; known as 'the best schoolmaster and the greatest beater,' the headmaster of Eton authored a Latin textbook based on Terence and his own English comedy, Ralph Roister Doister, both of which display an erotics of the letter that simultaneously registers and occludes the 'open secret' of pederastic desire.

Performed by Paul's Boys, the plays of John Lyly polish the crude parasite figure of schoolboy plays into stylish saucy pages; his Gallathea represents two 'girl pages' learning to act as boys while they seduce each other.  With 'lesbian' themes in three of his plays, Lyly goes far in staging female homoerotic desire while at the same time the boy company productions insistently affirm the privileged position of boys. The relation of Lyly's 'epicene' pages to Shakespeare's is not merely a question of style, but involves the fashionings of market, print, and pedagogy—technologies of represention and subjects that are variously engendered.

Finally, I consider representations of the failure of humanist training through the problem of the 'mechanical reproduction' in and of the plays of William Shakespeare: The Merry Wives of Windsor stages a parodic pedagogical scene in which William Page attempts to reproduce his Latin letters, not accidentally Lily and Colet's grammar textbook, yet the scene produces 'errancy' instead, with the encouragement of bawdy Mistress Quickly. Textual 'errancy' and agency are at stake in the handwritten pages of The Book of Sir Thomas More, a late century representation of the early Humanist network and its investment in the political effectiveness of training in letters.

Publication No. 9523852
 

Rocke MJ (1990). Male homosexuality and its regulation in late medieval florence. (Volumes I and II) Ph.D. Thesis, State University Of New York At Binghamton, DAI 50-10A, p. 3330, 720 pages.

Abstract by author: This is a study of the social significance of male homosexuality and its control in the republic of Florence. Based on records of a special fifteenth-century magistracy that prosecuted sodomy, plus other judicial, legislative, demographic, and narrative sources, this dissertation offers new evidence and perspectives on the regulation of sex, sexuality, gender, and male bonding and sociability in late medieval urban society. The policing of sodomy, which generally meant male homosexual acts, was an abiding public concern in Florence. Its forms varied considerably, however, a reflection of the problematic place of sodomy in local life.

The most telling shift occurred in the fifteenth century when authorities moved from punishing only sodomitic rape or child-abuse cases with exemplary penalties, to penalizing widespread non-violent homosexual acts with low fines under the administration of an apposite magistracy.  This pragmatic strategy allowed the state to extend its effective controls over sodomy. From 1432 to 1502, this office prosecuted some 12,000 individuals implicated in homosexuality and convicted well over 2,000, impressive proof that homosexual behavior flourished in Florence.

This study also seeks to comprehend how homosexuality functioned and what roles it played in the lives of ordinary Florentines. It finds that life stages, marital status, and notions of gender had determining influences on homosexual experience, and that homosexuality was rarely exclusive. Sexual relations normally involved an adult 'active' partner with a 'passive' adolescent. This pattern reflected and reinforced gender expectations, for receptive boys were castigated as females, while the act of sexually dominating boys helped define masculinity. It also fostered sexual violence, abuse of dependent boys, and teenage prostitution.

Adults who engaged in sodomy were mostly unmarried youths or older bachelors, so same-sex relations may have served as alternatives to marriage. This study also finds that rather than creating an autonomous subculture, homosexual relations implicated other social networks and bonds such as family, neighborhood, work, youth groups, friendship and patronage, making homosexuality an integral part of Florentine male culture.

Publication No. 9007572
 

Sang, Tze-Lan D (1996). The Emerging Lesbian: Female Same-Sex Desire In Modern Chinese Literature And Culture.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley. DAI Vol. 58:02A, p. 448, 278 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation reconstructs the process in which female homoeroticism became a significant object of discussion and contention in the Chinese public arena, paying special attention to the role artistic literature has played in the overall discursive formation. It is the first study to illuminate the transition from traditional to modern Chinese conceptions of female homoeroticism, and the investigation complements previous inquiries into the conceptual and behavioral revolution in gender and sexuality in the Republican period (1912-49).

Beginning in the 1910s and 1920s, female homoeroticism broke out of its former negligibility and insignificance in the patriarchal familial organization of traditional China, to become distinctively associated with feminism on the one hand and psycho-biological abnormality on the other. The social significance of Chinese women's same-sex relations, be it positive or negative, has increased in positive relation to Chinese women's overall social, economic and political strength.

Chapter One examines late imperial literati writing, with a focus on Pu Songling's stories of the strange. Preoccupied with segregating and stratifying the sexes, traditional Chinese patriarchy encouraged and relied for its stability on a broad range of female intimacies. However, that permission entailed serious delimitation. Female-female commitment was disallowed unless it either cooperated with male desire or supported the patriarchal cult of female chastity.

Chapter Two reconstructs the first modern Chinese taxonomic discourse of 'same-sex love' (tongxing lian'ai) with material gleaned from Republican intellectual magazines and medical pamphlets. By investigating the reinvention of the Western category 'homosexuality' in the Chinese context, I critique the blindness to gender difference in Foucault's model of discursive paradigm change, as well as suggest that the paradigm shift in discourses on homoeroticism has diverse rather than unitary effects.

Chapter Three looks at May Fourth fiction to analyze the cultural anxiety around New Women's same-sex love. Chapter Four finds in Taiwan the first overtly politicized lesbian movement in modernizing Chinese societies. I pinpoint the mutual implication between Taiwanese feminism and lesbian activism, and I read The Crocodile's Journal to illuminate the difficulties and progressive potential of lesbian autobiographical literature in a mass-mediated public sphere.

Publication No. 9723167
 

Taylor LA (1998).  Veritable Hotbeds: Lesbian Scandals In The United States, 1926-1936. The University of Iowa, DAI Vol. 59:09A, p. 3513, 381 pages.

Abstract by author: As American culture struggled to understand the causes of lesbianism between 1926 and 1936, a series of scandals emerged. Scandal surrounded a sexological study of 'normal' women conducted by the Bureau of Social Hygiene; the closing of the Broadway play, The Captive; the obscenity trial of Radclyffe Hall's The Well of Loneliness; and the adaptation of Lillian Hellman's play The Children's Hour into the film These Three. From a social hygiene organization to the theatre, to the publishing industry, to the lower courts, to the film industry, through arena after arena, many of the significant arenas of knowledge production in American culture all became veritable 'hotbeds' of lesbianism.

The scandals that surrounded the way lesbianism could and could not be represented and who should participate in such representations illustrate the ways in which the formation of sexual identity is a public event. In the process to regulate lesbian representation, the causes of lesbianism and the proper place the lesbian could figure in American culture was debated and publicized. The boundary separating the acceptable from the scandalous was dependent on the form of the representation, the particular industry that produced it, the underlying theory of sexual identity proposed in the text and the character of the audience expected to consume it.

The parameters of the scandal would prove to be dependent on the degree of self-regulation within the organization or industry itself. That factor in turn dictated the tactics proponents of lesbian representation could employ. Sometimes the scandals spilled into the lower courts, the state house and into the newspapers. Sometimes the scandals were carefully managed within the organization or industry itself. The struggles between 1926-1936 illustrate the public manner in which lesbian representations provoked conversations about the causes of sexual identity and the proper forum for those debates and in the process publicized the lesbian.

Publication No. 9904360
 

Terry JC (1992). Siting homosexuality; a history of surveillance and the production of deviant subjects (1935-1950). (Volumes I-III) University of California, Santa Cruz, MAI Vol. 33:02, p. 3961, 226 pages, ISBN: 0-315-91109-3.

Abstract by author: In the spring of 1935, the Committee for the Study of Sex Variants convened for the first time in New York City with the broad aim of determining the nature and significance of lesbianism and male homosexuality in modern urban society. In the spirit of solving social problems through scientific knowledge, it mobilized a panoply of experts from various fields whose purpose it was to gather and correlate information about homosexuality and the practices of a homosexual population believed to be growing in size and significance in the urban context of New York. Deploying modern procedures, they made use of new techniques offered by endocrinology, psychometric testing, x-ray imaging, photography, and modified psychoanalysis to study patterns of those who varied from norms of gender and heterosexuality.  Through a combination of innovative methods, the Committee brought a new kind of person—the ‘sex variant’—into being through an elaborate apparatus of medical and scientific surveillance. This dissertation focuses on the extensive research of the Committee for the Study of Sex Variants, situating its construction of homosexuality in relation to several historical developments of the time: (1) eugenical concerns about racial hygiene; (2) the rise of a popular movement for mental hygiene and psychometrics; (3) anthropological studies which searched the body for signs of innate deviance; (4) the rise of statistical modes of quantifying and classifying variations in human sexual behavior; and (5) the emergence of a counter-discourse generated by those labeled as sex variants. The thesis uses these scientific understandings of homosexuality as a privileged window for understanding significant aspects of American culture in the twentieth century, especially in terms of anxieties about gender and sexuality, as well as hygiene, race management, citizenship, family life, bodily pleasures, and scientific authority.

Publication No.
 

Walker RE (1990). The Lesbian Herstory Archives of New York City: its founders and their contribution to contemporary history. M.A. Thesis, Sarah Lawrence College. MAI Vol. 29:03, p. 400. 221 pages.

Abstract by author: This essay traces the history of the Lesbian Herstory Archives (LHA), in New York City, in the context of the growing field of Lesbian History which emerged during the early 1970s. It attempts to explain why the preservation of written documents and cultural artifacts is important to the Lesbian community, what social movements made the establishment of a Lesbian archive possible, how an archive can facilitate Lesbian historical investigation, and why the archive has chosen to remain independent as opposed to affiliating with an educational institution. Works in the field of Lesbian History and the History of Sexuality have been examined as have Archival publications, articles and the holdings of the collection.  Interviews were conducted with Joan Nestle and Deborah Edel; two founders of the LHA who have remained dedicated to the collection since its inception. Judith Schwarz, the Lesbian Historian, was also interviewed.

Publication No.  1343319
 

Weiss AR (1991). A history of lesbians in the cinema. Ph.D. Thesis, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick, DAI Vol. 52:12A, p. 4462, 280 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation explores the history of lesbian representation and spectatorship in the cinema, including Hollywood products, European art cinema, b-movies, and American independent film. While providing a textual analysis of many films, this study identifies and constructs a history of representation by relating cinematic qualities and images to ideological processes, and to cultural ideas about gender and sexuality. Film reviews, censorship files, lesbian publications, and even gossip as a form of unofficial history are used as primary sources. Yet given the dearth of documented evidence about lesbian lives, this dissertation necessarily theorizes an historical spectator, and in so doing broadens the psychoanalytic framework dominating contemporary film theory to include historical and sociological investigative methods.

With the reign of the Motion Picture Production Code from the 1930s to the 1960s, which prohibited direct reference to ‘sexual perversion’ in Hollywood films, lesbian representation was often confined to subtext, or was visible only as the signs of its repression. By the 1960s, subtext and repression gave way to stereotyping and voyeuristic images aimed at male visual pleasure. Yet lesbian spectators have been able to use oppositional viewing strategies and the ideological contradictions generated by Hollywood films in order to appropriate cinematic moments and styles in the construction of lesbian sexual identity and community.

In the last two decades, women directors working in European art cinema and American independent film have attempted to re-define the terms of lesbian representation, and to subvert the ways in which the cinema historically has been constructed for the male gaze. Bringing together elements of art cinema, feminism, and avant garde traditions, women’s cinema recently has created a range of lesbian images that also include lesbian spectators in their cinematic address. It is ironic, however, that these images—and spectators—are becoming visible just as the experience of the cinema as an institution is disappearing, as newer forms such as television, video, laser disk, and other electronic technologies threaten to take its place.

Publication No. 9214015
 

White C (1992). The organization of pleasure: British homosexual and lesbian discourse, 1869-1914. (Volumes I and II). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nottingham (United Kingdon), DAI Vol. 53:09A, 472 pages.

Abstract by author:

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